What is nation-state? Identify the process of evolution of nation-state in Europe?
Unit – 4
Question – What is nation-state? Identify the process of evolution of nation-state in Europe?
Definition of nation – The word ‘ nation ‘ is a translation of the English word ‘ nation ‘ . The word ‘ Nation ‘ is derived from the Latin word “natio,” means to be born. Political scientists do not have one opinion about the definition of nation. Many political scholars have defined it from the point of view of the word ‘ nation ‘ , some from the political point of view and some other thinkers from the cultural and psychological point of view. Some important definitions are as follows –
According to blushley “Nation is that group of people who are bound together especially by language, customs and common civilization which inculcates a sense of unity among them.” Nation is a culturally similar social group.
R.N Gilchrist believes that the nation-state is a state viewed from a certain point of view, that is , of the unity of the people organized into a state.
According to Lord Bryce , “ A nation is that nationality which has organized itself as a political institution that desires to be independent or independent.
According to Burgess , A nation is a population of only one race residing in the same area with geographical unity.
Meaning of State – The main subject of study of Political Science is ‘ State ‘ . Political science begins and ends with the state itself. The word ‘ State ‘ is called State in English and the word ‘State’ is from Latin language. Status is out. In Latin , the word ‘ status ‘ means a higher status than others. According to the meaning of the words, the state is the name of the organization whose status or status is higher than the status or status of other organizations and people. The word Raj was first used by the great Italian scholar , Mechavalli .
State is made up of four elements – 1. Population 2. Fixed area 3. Government 4. Sovereignty
|Improper use of the word ‘ state ‘ – In common spoken language , the word state is used loosely. For example, State of the federal government , we call a state as a state , such as Punjab , Rajasthan , West Bengal, etc. in India, and New York , California in the United States of America (USA) are called states , similarly , sometimes government This word is used in place of, as the aid received from the government is called state aid and the government college is called the college of the state , in politics the word ‘ state ‘ has a special meaning. Is. It is wrong to use it in place of government, nor can the word state be used for the State of the union.
A nation-state is an autonomous political community in which the political and cultural identities of the people converge , or in other words where citizenship and nationality overlap . Giuseppe Mazzini , an Italian political activist who advocated the unification of Italy in the 19th century, proposed ” a state for every nation , only one state for the whole country”. Most modern states are nation-states , thanks to classical nationalism in them. The nation has come to be accepted as the basic unit of political governance.
The state system gradually expanded from Europe to North America in the 17th and 18th centuries, and spread to South America and East Asia in the 19th century. It was in the 20th century that the state system became truly global, seeing the process of disintegration in Asia , Africa , the Caribbean and the Pacific and the formation of nation-states in these regions.
The process of development of the nation-state in Europe
- Fall of feudalismThere was no such thing as nationalism or patriotism in front of feudalism. But with the passage of time, these feudatories became weak due to mutual fights and they did not have the ability to compete with the power of the kings. With the disappearance of this practice, a big sum was found in the capture of power of the national states.
- The weakening of the international power of the Reformation and the Church – The Church considered various European countries as a part of its religious empire. But when the religious reform movement started in the 16th century and there was opposition to the international power of the church, then national sentiments started gaining momentum and soon national churches and national states were established along with it.
- war – Wars also contributed to the growth of national sentiments at times. The constant wars between England and France contributed greatly to the development of national feelings in both the countries.
- foreign rule – Foreign rule also proves helpful in the development of national feelings. The foreign rulers unknowingly inflict many atrocities and injustice on the local people in the intoxication of power. Seeing their exploitation, the people there unite and try to fight the foreign rule. Through this collective effort, Vada Yoga is found in the development of national sentiments.
- Reaction against injustice Sometimes, even as a reaction against injustice, the development of nationalism begins at a very rapid pace ; For example, in the Vienna Conference (1815 AD) to be held after the French Revolution, an attempt was made to crush the national sentiments. In France, again many small countries of the monarchy were again made slaves. But this injustice gave the nation and in many countries movements for independence and nationalism started soon.
- Contribution of Scholars – Many writers , poets , politicians and philosophers also contributed a lot in the formation of national spirit. The contribution made by Machiavelli, JS Mill , Fichte , Garibaldi , Cavour , Mazzini etc. in the development of national feelings can never be forgotten.
- Renaissance and Reformation – The birth of the regional secular state was closely linked to the religious wars that plagued Europe in the wake of the Reformation. The epistemological base of the modern state is rooted in the intellectual traditions of the Renaissance and Reformation movements in Western Europe , One who advocated the idea of modernity based on individualism , autonomy and the political and religious sphere (the former as public and the latter as private). Medieval Europe was characterized by political power , conflicts and instability between kings and religious authority, that is, the Church for power , wealth and authority.
The Protestant Reformation movement against the corrupt practices of the Catholic Church also broke into the Christian Commonwealth and undermined the political power of the religious right. Supported by patron political powers , the religious conflict culminated in the Thirty Years’ War from 1618 to 1648 , which was concluded with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 . The treaty sets aside a historical watershed turning point in the history of the development of modern states. According to higher and more expansive powers for secular political authority over the religious in the political and religious spheres and in matters of state politics.
- Treaty of Westphalia (1648) – The Treaty of Westphalia , also known as the Peace of Westphalia , ended the Thirty Years’ War between Spain , the Dutch, and Germany in 1648 . The treaty was instrumental in specifying the essential characteristics of a modern state and defined territorial boundaries , in terms of population , ‘ citizens ‘ and ‘ others ‘, sovereignty and governance/government , which claimed a monopoly on the lawful exercise of force and Being the supreme decision-making entity within its territorial jurisdiction and recognized the state as a sovereign over its claimed territory.
Skinner (1978) adequately took this understanding of the modern state as “ the political system , separate from both the ruler and the ruled , with supreme jurisdiction over a demarcated territorial area , supported by a claim to a monopoly of coercive power.” and enjoy a level of support or loyalty from its citizens”. However note that, “Westphalia was the beginning of a long historical process which , through rotations, progressed towards a sovereign territorial state. This was from one day to the next. There was no full stop”
- Social contract tradition and the notion of sovereignty – French philosopher Jean Bodin emphasized the need and merit of a single authority (which derives its power from God) having unified and uncontested legislative powers , governing war and peace , currency , are responsible for administration , judicial appointments, etc. , in contrast to whether the Christendom and feudalism of medieval times existed. English philosopher Thomas Hobbes in his classic text ‘ Leviathan ‘ Expanded the concept of an absolute sovereign authority arising from the social contract , which authorizes the sovereign to rule on behalf of individuals by providing a system of peace , security and stability , otherwise precarious because a chaotic society in which rational self-preservation is required. Individuals who are trying to maximize their survival potential through self-employed measures.
sovereign was entrusted with absolute powers such as waging war , raising taxes, etc. and was considered the only legitimate recourse by individuals as a group to revolt against it when their lives were in danger. On the other hand , the English philosopher John Locke’s concept of a hypothetical social contract introduced an element of ‘ natural rights ‘ to limit the legislative power of the sovereign by declaring it fundamental to the continued protection of the natural rights to life , liberty and property. Delivered.
Locke also argued that the people have the right to overthrow the government if it rules arbitrarily and ineffectively, endangering the individual’s natural rights. In this case people could elect new MLAs. This idea of a tacit contract informed by consent and mutual obligations and duties laid the foundation for modern democratic states are well reflected in the American Declaration of Independence (1776) , the French Revolution and the ‘ Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen ‘ . By having sovereign rights among the people and declaring certain rights inalienable , the era of modern democratic states began in international politics.
However , the degree of centralization of authority considered important for governance varied from state to state. For example , in the US , federal authority was limited by the rights of the constituent State , in contrast to France , which adopted a more centralized form of governance. These states embodied the understanding of the modern state during the Treaty of Westphalia , including territory (boundary) , population , sovereignty and system of governance (also recognition) .
- The birth of nationalism – a major change in the 18th century was the French and American Revolutions , in which ” the beheading of the emperor , either concretely or symbolically , and the Introduction of popular sovereignty led to the disintegration of hierarchy among different categories of people within the state.” intensified” (Andersen , 1991). “Nationalism as a modern ideology not only emphasizes equality within the state, allowing citizens to identify themselves, community, and belonging. See you in deep emotion.
“The nation became a ‘ fictitious community “a deep, horizontal co -operation ‘ whose members shared a common social, cultural and political identity. For that the legitimacy of the sovereign state was not based on divine or monarchical implied rights , but on the government’s ability to govern according to the values , interests and identities of the people” .
The state is the most important form of political organization and union in the global society of man. It is a historical entity that has evolved over the ages from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The state has four main elements—a defined territory , a stable population , an effective government , and the ability to enter into relations with other states. Sovereignty , both internal and external , is the most important underlying element of the state.
State and nation are different concepts. A nation is a group of people bound by a common language , religion , history , geography , values , traditions and aspirations. when with the nation state overlaps , creates a bond between citizenship and nationality , then it becomes a nation-state. From the early nineteenth century, the birth of nation-states changed the polity , re-organised political power in the world and gave states a sense of domestic cohesion and identity they did not have before.
However, the nation-state has been challenged by powers within and outside the state. Globalization has been considered as the biggest challenge to the sovereignty of the state. According to some scholars , these forces changed the nature of the state , gave rise to greater competition between the state and the ‘ market ‘ state and gave rise to the ‘ post -modern ‘ state and ‘ post-sovereign rule ‘ . However , there is increasing evidence of a return to state power following rising claims about the fall of the state. This has happened through increasing use of the state as an agent of economic modernization , as a response to new security threats, and through an emphasis on state-building as a means of promoting social and economic development.
Question – Identify the process of evolution of nation-states in post-colonial societies.
Answer – Western Europe was based on modern institutions such as the rule of law , property rights , impersonal bureaucracy, etc. and therefore enjoyed legitimacy unlike colonial states , where the rulers were hated by the native population. These colonial powers exported colonial rule to their colonies in Asia , Africa, and the Pacific , where they attempted to impose their concepts of nation-states without being. The existing traditional , religious and political milieu of these colonial states often resisted such imposition , minimizing the need for support for such structural change.
In the post-independence period, after its colonists exploited their resources, These former colonies struggled to develop according to European states in terms of material and economic capabilities. However , in some new states such as India , the colonial bureaucracy and the maintenance of security institutions such as the police and armed forces helped to channelize capital and resources for national development and kept private individuals away from gaining too much control over state power kept.
The Western European model of ‘polity’ became a legacy for state-building in Asia and Africa, despite differences in its geopolitical and cultural adjustments. The state model was also distinguished because it provided sovereignty and a legitimate basis for participation in the international system. And so, the post-colonial state attempted to replicate the modern nation-state of Europe through various domestic conflicts and conflicts.
Sudipta Kaviraj argues that this resulted in relevant changes in the prototype of the state that emerged in the post-colonial societies. While the European state was ‘ developed ‘ in terms of state legitimacy , governance , and political and economic institutions, the post -colonial state was under-developed , where state power was contested by social classes. Government institutions were fragmented and underdeveloped. According to Mohamed Ayub, it took 200 years for Western Europeans to attain the status of a modern state, a post -colonial state has attempted to achieve in about 50 years.
Post-colonial states faced a crisis of legitimacy and governance as a result of this attempt to simulate a long historical development process in a short period of time . Several post-colonial states such as Myanmar , Bangladesh , Ghana saw military coups that ousted the civilian government. In states such as Somalia , Sudan, and Colombia, non-state militias , criminal gangs and local powerhouses used violent and coercive power over the population.
The socio-economic imbalances and breakdowns introduced by colonialism resulted in economic , political , social , cultural , ethnic and racial conflicts and problems of internal security in the post-colonial state. Many states in Asia and especially Africa are referred to as ‘ weak ‘ or ‘ failed ‘ states. The nexus between the ruling elite and international capital, facilitated by the neo-liberal reforms carried out in many of these countries since the late 1970s, also led to further impoverishment by creating huge economic inequality in these states .
The security situation today is different from the authoritarian states under Nazi and Fascist rule in 20th century Europe. they were ultra-nationalist projects who tried to assimilate civil society into the state as a corporate body through oppressive and coercive police force , militarism and national-racial ideology. Neo-liberal economic reforms and the advent of global capitalism have made the state a ‘ retreat ‘ in several quarters and as a result states have relinquished some of their welfare responsibilities.
It has provided space for private enterprises to convert these ‘xzresponsibilities ‘ into ‘ services ‘ that can afford them. There is increasing privatization of education and healthcare, originally regarded as public goods in the state system. However , this withdrawal of the state from key areas does not necessarily lead to the collapse of the state system. Rather , in some cases , it is accompanied by an increase in the coercive powers of the state , for example , in the UK and US.
New security state differs in that it includes crime control , Includes a change in the philosophy and perspective towards the security functions of the state and the centrality of the ‘state of the exception ‘ ( Agamben 2005) as a general state . Holsworth and Lee characterize the rise of the security state in three areas – ‘ transitional from welfare to the workplace and risk management, new measures to combat terrorism and organized crime and the blurring of war and crime control ‘ . In the wake of the 9/11 attacks on the US and the rise of international terrorism , the new security state has increasingly capitalized on the securitization logic and incorporated high levels of surveillance , censorship, and control and maintenance in the name of the law. The line between ‘ internal ‘ and ‘ external ‘ security and threats is blurred.
This culture makes citizens aware of their activities, speeches and actions. and encourages them to practice self-censorship so as to avoid being wrongly accused by the state , even if such acts are not ‘ crimes ‘ in the ordinary sense of the word . The new security state , for example, sees certain sections of the population (illegal migrants , poor unemployed people , refugees , prostitutes , beggars, etc.) as ‘ risky ‘ and has always been seen to have an ‘ inherent disposition towards crime ‘ . should go.
‘safe spaces’ such as surveillance and exclusion spaces (deployment of CCTV cameras in residential and commercial neighbourhoods, creation of ‘ gated societies ‘ , restrictions on access to places such as public parks etc.) ). ‘ Crime ‘ is distinguished by its socio-economic basis , (thereby putting the idea of welfare policies , rehabilitation and family support structures as useful remedies on the backfoot) and a presented in a clean form that can only be controlled by more coercive actions and techniques. Growing links between trans-national criminals such as drug cartels , terrorists and smugglers with local communities have contributed to a perceived prejudice against the surplus population. The new security state addresses this through increased use of pre-emptive criminalization measures and extraordinary laws such as sedition, in the name of maintenance of public order.
Globalization has not only made states operate in external contexts ‘ Rather the ‘ nature of states ‘ has also been changed . The impact of globalization is , however , multifaceted. On the one hand , it has not only facilitated an introverted nature of crime control by states through more stringent and disciplinary practices , but it has also encouraged the internationalization of crime management efforts.
For example, the establishment of international tribunals to handle incidents of crimes against humanity , genocide , ethnic violence perpetrated by non-state informal militias and criminal gangs , conventions to prevent the rise of international terrorism , collective security and collective defense . Arrangement etc.
Globalization , not only in terms of military technology and capability, but also in terms of development and environmental protection In terms of dimensions too, the competition among the states has intensified. While the jury is still out on the true transformative potential of globalization in changing the nature of the modern state or giving rise to new forms of state systems , there is a general consensus that states are not the only important players in global affairs. Although the state is still very relevant in the modern world order, its interactions with global powers and technology are often shaped by a number of factors that lead to contextual variation in states’ power , capacity and interests in regulating them.
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