What do you understand by representation ? Elaborate different theories of representation.
Lesson -1: Political Representation
Question : What do you understand by representation ? Elaborate different theories of representation.
Meaning of representation
No group or group today can gather all its members on every occasion because of its large size for necessary decisions and necessary negotiations. For this, they elect some of their representative members , who become participants in every decision in the future and represent the group or faction. From this point of view, acting under the authority authorized by the representatives for the group is called representation.
Definition of representation
The Encyclopedia of Britannica defines representation as ” the process by which the attitudes , preferences , attitudes and desires of all citizens, or any part of them , form their voluntary actions and are represented by They have a binding effect on them. Similarly, according to Robert von Mohl- ” Representation is the process by which all citizens or any part of them exercise the effect on government work , according to their express will, by a few of them on their behalf. ” and it is necessary for them to believe that they are representing. ,
After understanding the meaning of representation, it is also necessary to understand the meaning of political representation. Political representation appears to refer to a person elected by the people. The political representative is the elected person who represents the group. A political representative is a person who has the legal right to influence and directly participate in the process of governance in a political society.
A.H.Birch has defined it as- “ A political representative is a person who, by convention or by law, holds the status of a representative in a political system and performs the role of a representative. In this sense, political representation refers to the role played by the political representative in the political system.
Development of representational system
Political scholars are not unanimous about the origin of the representation system. Montesquieu and Rousseau consider it to be a product of the modern era , they say that in ancient times the king was the sole authority of power and all decisions of governance were taken by him. When the autocracy of the king started increasing, some of his advisors started emerging as people’s representatives to suppress the voice of the people.
When the king needed money, he started inviting some public representatives to him and gradually these representatives became an important part of the society. These representatives began to play a role in connecting the king and the people, and in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, the Parliament in England, the Estates General in France, the Cortes in Spain, Germany and Japan. Representative organizations emerged in the form of diet . The struggle between these institutions and kings continued for a long time and in the end only the representative institutions won.
1213 John called four wise knights from each county to a meeting of the Great Assembly. Henry III held similar meetings in 1254 , Edward I in 1295 . The assembly of Edward I is known as the Model Parliament , as it was attended by 400 people. All classes got representation in it. The Parliament of England was noted as a Mother Parliament, as it had representatives representing the interests of all classes.
Gradually, the system of representation continued to develop in England and in 1919 all adult men and women were given the right to vote. Today England is a unique example of representative democracy and monarchy. Like England, the representational system continued to develop in other countries as well. The Third French Republic of 1871 and the Weimar Republic of 1919 are unique examples of the development of the representative system. Even during the American Revolution, the slogan of ‘ No tax without representation ‘ reverberated and finally representative democracy was established there.
Although in communist countries also, the slogan of representative system has been Prmoting , But there the reality is different. In India too after the revolution of 1857 , the representative system was started and under the Indian Councils Act 1861 , Indians were given some places in the councils of Governor General and Governors. In 1892 and 1909 this number was increased somewhat and the Montagu-Chames Ford Reforms of 1919 gave birth to a responsible representative system of government.
1955 deepened the roots of the representative system in India. For the first time in India, elected representative governments were formed for the provinces. In 1946 , the constitution of the Constituent Assembly was also done under the representative system. All classes were given representation in this. After independence, India became the largest country to conduct representative rule on the basis of adult franchise , which is still the largest representative democratic country in the world. Today the age of voting in the Constitution of India is 18 years and the people are running their government through representatives only.
principles of representation
There are many theories about representation prevailing. Ellen Baal divided the principles of representation into two parts.
- Liberal Democratic Theory
- It is divided into collectivist theory.
He says that in a liberal democracy there is not only the expansion of franchise , but there is equality in voting rights as well. In this system, the individual exercises his franchise according to rationalism and the sovereignty of the people is manifested in the form of universal suffrage.
In this, the basis of the need for choice is that liberal philosophy that the role of man’s personality and situation is important. In this the representative is accountable to the people. The liberal principle of representation is the basis for the rise of political parties and the increase in the power of the executive. Along with this, the collectivist theory is also closely related. This principle holds that the legislature should represent the interests of the majority class rather than the individuals and votes.
This theory believes that both the sovereignty of the people and the will of the majority are paramount. But the claim of the Soviet Union has turned out to be false that the totalitarian representative system of communist countries is superior to the democracy of capitalist states.
Today in China , Korea , Cuba too, in the name of democracy, the same joke is being made with the representative system which was done in the Soviet Union. Therefore, the collective representational theory is not correct. Only liberal democratic theory can be the true model of representative system. Apart from this principle, today only two unfavorable principles are more valid , which are in the form of ideal representation and ideal representation.
Question – What are the basic features of representation? Elaborate Quota System and Women’s Representation.
Meaning of representation
There is no any group or system can gather all its members on every occasion because of its large size for necessary decisions and necessary negotiations. For this, they elect some of their representative members , who become participants in every decision in the future and represent the group or faction. From this point of view, acting under the authority authorized by the representatives for the group is called representation.
Basic features of representation
- Democracy is concerned with the welfare of the common people – Democracy is the rule of the people, by the people and for the people . In a democracy , sovereignty is in the hands of the people. Therefore, the people themselves are the rulers, directly or indirectly. The main objective of democracy is the political , economic and social progress of the people as a whole. Democracy is a system in which the administration is not carried out for the welfare of any individual or a particular section , but efforts are made for the welfare of the people as a whole.
- It is based on the principle of equality – the main principle of democratic governance system is equality. It means not only political equality , but also economic and social equality. In a democracy, there is no discrimination in the political field on the basis of caste , property , religion or color , but everyone is given equal rights to develop.
- Freedom is necessary for human development – The main power of democracy is freedom , without freedom, full development of a person is not possible , as much freedom as a person can get in democracy , no one has that much freedom in governance. In a democracy , citizens have complete freedom to express their views , form a community , criticize the government and newspapers etc. The individual is free to accept or reject any religion. In a democratic system, the right to freedom is not only given , but an independent judiciary is also arranged to protect the freedom of the people.
- People get political education – elections are held in a democratic system. To win these elections , various political parties run election movements and declare their party’s policies. Their leaders praise or criticize the regime. The people choose their representatives. and participate directly or indirectly in governance. Through all these activities the public gets political education.
- There is no possibility of rebellion or revolution – in ancient times , when there was monarchy , history is witness that sometimes there was bloodshed during change of regime. But democracy is a rule in which violent action is not taken to change the commission government , rather people can change the government peacefully by using the right to vote. In this regard , Gilchrist said , ” Democracy is a rule of public consent , therefore it cannot be revolutionary.”
- Responsible Government – In a democratic system , governance is carried out according to the will of the people. The people elect a qualified representative to run the government. The elected representatives of the people receive the trust of the people and govern on the basis of the opinion of the public opinion. Being based on the people creates stability in the government. People’s representatives realize that if they do not run the administration according to the will of the people , they will not be elected in the next election. It is also possible that the commission rulers may be removed before the next election. The elected representatives of the people are responsible for every action of the people.
This system was developed by Thomas Heyer in 1851 . According to this system, the country is divided into multi-member constituencies and at least three and not more than twenty members are elected from each constituency. In this method, the voter is given a form with the names and symbols of all the candidates on many sides and blank boxes on the right. In this blank space, the voter reveals his preferences by writing the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
It is the desire of the voter to fill in any field or leave any blank , in which all invalid votes are canceled before the votes are counted. After counting, the candidate who gets a certain number of votes in the quota is declared the winner. this quota or number of votes There are two ways to extract:-
Total number of votes
(a) ————— = quota
Total number of places
Total number of votes
(b) —————— + 1 = quota
Total number of places + 1
180000 voters have voted from a constituency and the number of representatives to be elected is 10 then a representative has to get the minimum number of votes to be elected:-
—— +1 = 18001 votes.
10 × 1
This is the hair formula. This is more prevalent today. This formula is rarely adopted. While counting the votes in the Hair Sutra, a special method is used. Its basis is the transfer of votes from representative to another representative according to preference . First the first preference votes are counted. If a candidate secures the minimum number of votes, he is elected.
The remaining votes which were received by him in the form of first choice, are transferred to the candidate of second choice as soon as the result is declared and he is declared elected after taking a fixed number of votes. This process continues until the necessary representatives have been elected . In India, the President and the members of the Rajya Sabha are elected on this basis.
Representation of women
The idea behind the demand for increased participation of women in electoral politics is not only to increase their presence but also to increase their participation in political discourse which is dominated by opportunism , gender discrimination and ultra-male discourse. But incidents like Priyanka Chaturvedi’s transition from Congress to Shiv Sena point to a sad irony.
Chaturvedi alleges that he left the Congress because the party did not take steps against those who behaved indecently against him. But she went to a party that never gave importance to the values that Priyanka Chaturvedi is talking about. Despite this, Priyanka Chaturvedi is reiterating her commitment to women’s rights.
Such incidents point to the ‘ new ‘ normality of politics. It is dominated by naked careerism without any guilt. Therefore, this thinking needs to be tested. This incident also shows that for the parties their members are like their employees whose job is to market the brand and image of the party. It is also not right to consider such people as leaders. Because they are neither related to the people nor the ideology of the party. In such a situation, it is normal to switch from party to party as it is considered part of the corporate culture.
The problem with this is also the fact that the talk of women’s rights is very limited. On one hand there is acceptance of corrupt politics and on the other hand there is also the pretense of struggle against it. The real feminism is that a new kind of language has arisen in politics. For this reason, there is a demand to increase the participation of women in democratic houses. Is this attitude of female leaders helping women in that they feel they have to act like men in order to be successful ?
Reservation is an important step to increase the share of women representatives in the political landscape. In the last Lok Sabha elections, only 11 percent women could become MPs. This means that there was one woman MP for 90 lakh women. The demand for reservation becomes even more important because the parties are not giving tickets to women as expected. Parties are giving tickets to only those women who have been popular or have any political legacy. Most of the parties are ignoring their women workers who are working at the grassroots level. Even if women get tickets, their path is not easy. The entire election process is dominated by men at various levels.
Even if women win political power by winning, it is not necessary that their significant participation in politics should be ensured. This is known by looking at the parties whose presidents are women. However , studies have shown that the political agenda and activities at the local level have improved due to increased participation of women at the local level. The question that needs to be asked is that after being elected, do women think differently and act differently to bring about a massive change ? Reservation may increase their participation in the Houses but women should work to change the power equations in politics.
The number of women voters is continuously increasing. There is a need for representatives who can properly raise their demands and play their part in the development of a new political culture. These representatives should take up the issues of declining participation of women in the workforce and the absence of two crore women in the electoral rolls. They should try to elaborate on the issues of women.
Real representation means that women from different backgrounds get a voice and thereby develop a new sensibilities in politics. It is important to instill confidence in the values of democracy and feminism and not support aggressive masculinity and violent thinking. Just talking about feminism will not improve the situation, nor will it change the attitude. An increase in women’s participation will bring about a change in attitude, but the fear is that the same political culture will not be strengthened, which insists on acting like men to stay in politics.
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