Nios Class 12th Psychology Solved Previous Year Question Paper in English Medium
- VIBGYOR is an acronym used for memorizing the seven colours or the rainbow. This is an example of a mnemonic technique called:
(a) Method of loci
Ans (c) Recoding
- Which of the following is not included in the theory of multiple intelligences?
(a) Intrapersonal intelligence
(b) Interpersonal intelligence
(c) Spatial intelligence
(d) Artistic intelligence
Ans (d) Artistic intelligence
- Identify the psychosexual stage the child derives greatest pleasure from moving his bowels and the way toilet training is handled:
(a) Oral stage
(b) Anal stage
(c) Phallic stage
(d) Latency stage
Ans (c) Phallic stage
- If a psychological scale gives the same value while assessing the same individual on two occasions, it is called:
Ans (b) Reliability
- Which one of the following traits given in the five factor model is also found in Eysenck’s theory of personality?
Ans (c) Neuroticism
- Explain needs and its types with the help of examples.
What do you understand by primary needs? How are these different from sociopsychogenic needs?
Ans A need is a condition of lack of something required by the organism. In order to maintain balance the organism finds it essential to satisfy the needs.
(a) Primary Needs: Primary needs mean the basic needs. They are the needs which require immediate attention because they are must for our body. The primary needs are called the physiological needs because to a large extent they are rooted in the physiological state of the body. The need for food or water is a physiological need. It arises due to lack or deficiency of food or water in the organism the needs for excretion and urination are also physiological needs. They occur because organism’s necessity to eliminate waste matter the body. Needs for food, water, sleep and rest, sex, excretion etc are primary needs.
Primary needs are very different from sociopsychogenic needs because primary needs are basic needs and require immediate attention while social needs occur for the need for contact with other persons. Social needs include need for prestige status, affection, self esteem etc. These needs will only occur in persons mind when his basic needs oil primary needs are fulfilled so we can call Sociopsychogenic needs as secondary needs. Needs for achievement, assimilation, affiliation etc., are example of socio-psychogenic needs.
The difference between primary needs and socio-psychogenic needs can be explained in a better way by taking example of hunger, thirst.
Hunger: Among the physiological needs hunger is the most basic and strongest of human need. The human body has evolved many bodily mechanisms that regulate actions necessary for maintaining the physiological balance. The biochemical processes which sustain life get their energy and chemical substances from food. Food deprivation results in contractions in the stomach which are felt by the individual as hunger pangs. When this thing happens the individual spends energy in trying to get food? Factors like habits and social customs can also influence eating behavior
Thirst: This is a very basic need we can live for a longer duration without eating anything but we can’t live without water for more than few days. The brain directs the individual to obtain water.
(b) Psychological Needs: These needs don’t require immediate attention like hunger, thirst etc. For example;
(a) Safety Needs: Safety needs are mainly concerned with maintaining order and safety, to feel secure, safe and out of danger.
(b) Love and Belongingness Needs: The needs of this category emphasize the basic psychological nature of human beings to identify with the group life. These needs also occur after the completion of basic needs.
(c) Esteem Needs: This need is related to self esteem, self-respect and self-regard. People want respect from others regarding there reputation, social status, success and fame.
- What is impression formation? Explain.
Ans. perceiving other persons is an important part of our everyday life. We form an impression when we meet a person. A glance and a few uttered words are enough for this. We perceive the various traits in relation to others and form a dynamic whole. We form an impression of the whole person. The traits do not remain in isolation. They interact with each other and form a new whole. When we form an impression, we rely on and give greater weight age to the sources we trust or admire. Similarly we often emphasize more the negative information or unusual information.
- How can pro-social behavior be strengthened? Discuss.
Ans. Pro-social Behavior: The behavior by which others are benefited comes under the category of pro-social behavior. Like co-operation, sharing and helping when others are in distress. Children pass through four stages in the development of empathy because of which pro-social behavior is made possible.
(a) During the first stage infant are not able to differentiate self from others. They behave in a manner whatever they see in adults, like they cry when others cry and laugh when others laugh.
(b) After one year, they gradually develop a sense of self different from others. This stage is characterized by egocentric thinking. They help the other person in a manner in which they themselves want to be helped.
(c) In the third stage, children show situation like empathy.
(d) In fourth stage, they understand the expression of distress, happiness and come to know through the expression of others about his/her feelings.
Children learn helping behavior by imitating known people like parents, teachers, neighbors’, older siblings, etc. children should be provided the opportunities for responsibility taking, role playing, and reinforcing desirable behaviors. These techniques will strengthen the development of pro-social behavior.
- How groups function 2 Discuss.
Explain how Group Operates?
Ans. Whenever a group is organized or formed it functions on the basis of certain norms. All the group members perform different roles. So a group may be highly integrated and members may have cohesive bonding or they may lack it. There are few aspects on which group may function.
(a) Roles: In any group different members are supposed to play different roles. For example, if we form any organization, we get people who occupy different posts like role of President, Secretary, Treasurer, etc. All of them have different roles to achieve … goal.
(b) Norms: Each group functions on fix rules. They may be explicit or implicit. They keep control and regulate the behaviors of group members. All members are supposed to fallow these norms.
(c) Status: In the group also people have different status which depends on the specific rank accorded to a person due to nature of task assigned to him and power to influence decision-making.
- What is obsessive compulsive disorder? Explain
Ans. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Continuous thoughts or wishes that keep on coming into our consciousness and cannot be stopped are obsessions; compulsion is an act which a person is forced to do in spite of knowing that it is unnecessary. Like few people are compulsive shoppers. Sometimes obsessive thinking leads to compulsive acts.
- Explain emotions and its three basic aspects.
Ans. Emotion is derived from the Latin word “emovere”. It means stir up, agitate, excite or move. When we meet our friend after a really long time, we feel happy; when a child wants love or attention he/she clings to his or her mother. When we get good marks or are praised by our teachers or parents we feel proud of ourselves and on hearing criticism we feel sad. So emotions are generally referred to as a stirred up condition involving subjective experience and effective reactions.
Each emotion has three basic aspects:
(i) Cognitive Aspect: It involves thoughts, beliefs and expectations that are involved when we experience emotions.
(ii) Physiological Aspect: It involves physiological activation. When you experience emotions such as fear or anger, you experience an increase in pulse rate, blood pressure and respiration.
(iii) Behavioral Aspect: It includes various forms of emotional expressions. If you observe your father or mother during anger and happiness you will notice that facial expressions, bodily postures and tone of voice vary with anger, joy and other emotions.
- How verbal learning takes place? Discuss?
Ans The verbal skills are acquired by the child as she grows. In the initial stages, a child has limited understanding of what certain words and gestures mean. Verbal learning involves learning to respond to words or with words. After that the child develops improved verbal skills such as naming objects, pronouncing words, combining words to form sentences, writing sentences to convey an idea and so on. She acquires a new vocabulary to communicate properly. These skills are acquired through memorising, by repeating recalling and recognising the material. The skill of speaking involves motor as well as symbolic and verbal skin it is acquired partly on the basis of reflex vocalisation which appears during infancy and also through imitation and modeling. There are a number of methods used by the psychologists for presenting the material like serial learning, free recall and paired associates learning.
- Identify the two different approaches to study development
Ans. Longitudinal Approach: This approach studies the same person over a period of time noting his ability and changes taking place during the time span. Thus if a set of new born babies, constitute the sample, they are seen through infancy, early childhood, late childhood, etc., to understand the process of development
Case study is an example of one such method used for the study of behavior over a long period of time.
Advantages: This is the best way to actually “see” growth occur
Disadvantages: It has some disadvantages as under:
(i) Difficulties are encountered in keeping contact with large sample over a long period of time.
(ii) It is time consuming and expensive.
(iii) Repeated testing makes a subject test-wise which affects the score.
Cross Sectional Approach: In this approach several representative children of different age groups are studied at the same point of time. There is usually only one observation for each child and developmental changes are identified by including children of different ages in the study. For example, changes in intellectual abilities may be investigated by comparing the performance of representative samples of one year old and so on.
Advantages: The advantages of this approach are as under:
(a) It prevents the loss of sample strength which occurs in studies of long duration.
(b) It is cost-effective, saves time and facilitates record keeping.
(c) It is practicable.
Disadvantages: However certain disadvantages of this approach are as follows:
(a) The totality and the individuality of the person are lost.
(b) There is a loss of development continuity in studying the person in the sample.
- With the help of examples explain the four goals of psychological research.
What are the goals of psychological studies?
Ans. Psychologists try to answer questions by adopting scientific approach which is based on systematic enquiry and observations which are not biased or influenced. It is basically based on various psychological processes like memory, thinking, learning, perceptions, intelligence etc. Psychologists by using these scientific methods try to achieve following goals:
(a) Description: This is the first step in which proper description of the phenomenon is required.
(b) Explanation: Explanation means providing the environment which can cause the change in behavior. E.g. continuous positive practice can bring changes in behavior.
(c) Prediction: If we are able to explain some phenomena we can predict the events in particular circumstances. For prediction, we have to do systematic analysis of causal factor.
(d) Control: Prediction provides the knowledge to bring desirable changes e.g., polio can be prevented by taking the polio vaccine in time or quality of life and health can be improved by practicing yoga. Knowledge can be used to provide desirable and positive results.
- Discuss the developmental tasks during adolescence.
Discuss the. Developmental Tasks of Adolescents
Ans The adolescent has to attain particular attitudes, habits and skills if he or she has to fu effectively as an adult. Havighurst calls these development tasks of adolescents. Development tasks of adolescents are as under:
(a) To have new and mature relations with mates of both sexes.
(b) To acquire a masculine or feminine social role.
(c) Acceptance of own physique and using his/her body effectively.
(d) To have emotional independence from parents and other adults.
(e) To emotionally prepare to gain economic independence. For existing circumstances, considerable care and thought are required to prepare for an enjoyable and productive career.
(f) Planning for marriage and family life.
(g) Desiring and achieving socially responsible behavior by understanding social and moral commitment.
(h) Acquiring a set of values and ethical system and developing an ideology as guide to behavior.
- With the help of examples discuss the steps one would take to develop self-control.
What is Self-control? Explain its steps.
Ans. ‘Self-control is a process of learning to regulate one’s own behavior in a manner maximally. Rewarding or satisfying. If one adopts self-control method then you can achieve your goal. For example, obese person can lose weight by adopting self· control. Chain smokes can decrease smoking etc. There are following steps in self-control.
(a) Performing a task: Action taken to solve a specific problem.
(b) Self monitoring of performance and outcome: Observation of your actions.
(c) Self-evolution: This involves person’s belief about himself.
(d) Self-reinforcement: This involves recognising and praising of the accomplishments that leads to good rewards or a positive self-statement.
Child is taught to remain peaceful, calm, and take control of difficult situation rather than being provoked and react.
(a) Prepare for provocation: Child should be taught that difficulties will come in the way. Teach him/her to anticipate them and not to get provoked by them.
(b) Confront the difficulty: Through different techniques like imagination, play-acting or rehearsal, individual is taught to confront the provocation and be in control of the situation so that desirable response is achieved.
(c) Cope with the provocation: Child is made aware that during confrontation physical responses occurs like tightening and rising fear or anger.’ Simple coping skills are taught.
(d) Reflect on the consequences: The child is taught to handle the provocation by giving a thought to its outcome. Provocation by giving be either positive or negative. The child.” encouraged to be more extroverts, open to ideas of others. He is suggested to maintain a diary about himself and others. He is encouraged to talk to friends, parents and become more aware of the possibilities.
Self Instructional Training (SIT): These instructions focus on the development of major skill areas emphasizing Self-talking’ responses like:
(a) Teaching problem identification
(b) Teaching self-interrogation skills.
(c) Teaching attention-focusing and appropriate responding skills.
(d) Teaching self-reinforcement
(e) Self-correction and coping option.
- Explain the hierarchy of needs as given by Maslow.
What do you understand by hierarch of needs?
Ans This concept was given by Abraham Maslow. He arranged the needs in a rising order from the level of physiological needs to need of self transcendence. It is arranged from lower order need to higher order needs.
(a) Physiological Needs: Most important and lowest level of needs is physiological needs. I.e. needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, sex occupy the lowest step in the pyramid. According to Maslow, when the physiological needs are not fulfilled, other needs don’t appear. For life food is a must; we get energy to – work from food. When we don’t get food for longer duration hunger pangs starts and person starts searching for food. We can survive without food for long, but we cannot survive without water for more than a few days.
(b) Safety Needs: When physiological needs: are satisfied, person starts worrying about safety. It includes feeling secure towards your own safety, feeling out of danger..
(c) Love and Belongingness Needs: We live in a society and there is a need to make intimate relationship with few members of the society. Person wants family when his above both needs are fulfilled.
(d) Esteem Needs: They are of two types:
(i) Needs related to respect from others like your reputation, individual’s social status, fame in society etc.
(ii) Self-esteem, self-respect and self-regard involves person’s own esteem to be high to gain recognition in society.
(e) Self-actualisation: This involves person’s own development of his/her potential to the fullest and try to do best for one’s upliftment for which he/she is capable. This is possible only when above needs are fulfilled.
(f) Self-transcendence: This is the highest level of need. This breaks the boundary of self and person starts thinking on the society level and becomes spiritual.
In this, hierarchy it’s assumed that first lowest level has to be satisfied and then only Person goes on riding other levels of needs.
- Discuss the four principles of Ayurveda upon which health and well being depend.
- Write shorts notes on:
(c) Vihar and Vichar.
Ans. (a) Ahara (Diet): Ahara means diet or food we eat. Our health depends on the type and quality of food we eat.
(i) Vegetarian food is safe and invigorating for the body.
(ii) We should eat fresh fruit and green vegetables because they are rich in content. Fiber regulates our movement. Honey and is curd, things provide vitamins, antioxidants; iron etc. necessary for health.
(iii) Food having opposite effect should be avoided eating together like hot and cold objects should not be taken together (l.e hot milk and ice-cream should be avoided).
(b) Achar (Conduct): Your health depends on your conduct, your healthy life style. We should follow some regime.
(i) Our daily routine should be organized according to season.
(ii) We should drink plenty of water every day because due to sweat and excretion our water is going out from our body.
(iii) Some form of exercise or yogic asnas is required to keep our body fit and active. Regular massage with oils helps body and skin to remain fit and fine.
(iv) Time management is very essential for better quality of life. We should develop skills for proper time management.
(c) Vihar and Vichar: Man is a social animal. We have to stay in society with family, friends and others. What we do, what we think and what we say: to others affects our health and thinking.
(i) We should develop accommodative intellect; we should accept our criticism in a positive way. We should not be selfish, try to live for others also and be sympathetic towards others by understanding their emotional needs.
(ii) We should practice self-control. Everybody has emotions of lust and greed but we should not be driven by them.
(iii) Everybody has positive as well as negative emotions. We should lead our life by being positive. One should avoid their life to be dominated by negative emotions like fear, anger, jealousy and worry.
(iv) One should develop enduring friendship and develop social relation with other. If you don’t do this, you will be lonely.
(v) One must understand the value of self. For healthy life your connectivity with others should be good.
(vi) Spirituality is must for better living. To stay connected with God some spiritual inclination is required.
- How defense mechanisms protect the ego? Discuss any two.
What is Defense Mechanism?
Ans. Ego not only operates on reality principles:, but it has to perform a difficult task of bridging the gap between the instinctual demands of Id and moral position of super ego. The ego tried to resolve a matter but if a realistic solution or compromise is not possible it tries to indulge in distorting thoughts or perception of reality via certain processes known as defense mechanism. To protect or safeguard ourselves we use methods called defense mechanism. They are also known as Adjustment Mechanism.
- Explain the role of any four endocrine glands.
Describe the functions of endocrine system.
Ans. Hormones are chemicals which secreted by ductless glands known as endocrine glands into our blood streams. This system; collection of ductless glands and controls various body functions. These endocrine glands secrete chemicals which send signals and hormones are released directly into the blood stream. Hormones are supposed to be present in fixed ratios both increased and reduced levels of hormones are harmful for our body. For example, if the level of insulin hormone decreases in the body, diabetes is caused. High or low level of thyroxin causes thyroid related diseases.
Function of Endocrine System: There are different glands under endocrine system which releases different enzymes to perform different functions:
(a) Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland is a small gland equal to a size of pea. It is reddish-grey in color. This gland is present in the brain. It is known as master gland because few hormones released by it stimulates and regulates the hormones of other endocrine glands. Pituitary gland controls growth, metabolism i.e. transformation of food into energy, regulation of adrenalin, thyroid and gondola hormone secretion, milk production in females.
We can see that pituitary gland is regulating most of our body functions that is the reason
It is known as “MASTER GLAND”.
(b) Thyroid Gland: Thyroid gland is located in the neck. It releases thyroxin hormone which controls metabolism, transformation of food into energy. It also affects energy level and the mood.
(c) Adrenal Gland: These glands are located above the kidneys. They secrete adrenalin and other hormones during emergency situations.
(d) Pancreas: It is located near the stomach. It produces insulin that controls blood sugar level.
(e) Gonads: It controls sexual development and sexual behavior. The male gonads (testes) are present in the testicles. Male gonad produces the hormone known as testosterone. The female gonads are present in the ovaries. They produce the hormone estrogens. In both sexes i.e. male and female, these hormones controls the sex drive as well as regulate the development of secondary sex characteristics such as beards in men and breast in women. The endrogen (testosterone) are generally found at higher levels in male than in females while the oestrogen is normally found at higher levels in females. Endrogens and oestrogens are found in both sexes.