Nios class 12th Painting Most Important Question with Answer English mediumTeam Manish Verma
Q 1. What is Pahari Qulam? Name the themes of Pahari miniature painting.
Answer – Pahari Qualam – A new style that was developed in the Himalaya foot-hills of Punjab, Garhwal and Jammu is known as “Pahari Qualam” or Pahari school of painting. The local folk-art form of this area was influenced by painters of Mughal court when they took shelter in the Hindu states of this area due to the invasion of Nadir Shah.
The central theme of Pahari painting is depiction of eternal love of Hindu deities Radha and Krishna.
Q 2. List out the different centre of the “Company School of Art”.
Answer – The style first emerged in Murshidabad, West Bengal, and then spread to other centres of British trade:
- Benares (Varanasi),
- Lucknow and
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Q 3. How does painting of Tanjore show its difference from other style?
Answer – Tanjore paintings are different from any other painting style because of its embellishment over the basic drawing with precious and semi-precious stone as well as the relief work. This art originated in Thanjavoor (Tanjore) in Tamil Nadu during 16th C.A.D., but most of the extant works belong to 19th C.A.D.
Q 4. Write about the jewellery of Indus Valley Civilization with example.
Answer – Jewellery was found in great abundance and variety at Indus Valley sites. Lot of Gold, Silver or Jade Necklace, ear rings, pendants, belts and bangles were found. This Jade Necklace is an excellent example of craftsmanship and designing. This is made of 30 round beads and six oval beads. All ornaments are well crafted.
Q 5. Give a general introduction to the temple art of 8th century in India.
Answer – The Masrur Temples, also referred to as Masroor Temples or Rock-cut Temples at Masrur, is an early 8th-century complex of rock-cut Hindu temples in the Kangra Valley of Beas River in Himachal Pradesh, India. The temples face northeast, towards the Dhauladhar range of the Himalayas. This sculpture adorns wall of the Kailash temple which was dedicated to the worshipers of Shiva. This relief panel treats battle scenes in which the deity is engaged in destroying the demon.
☞ Nios कक्षा 12 वीं,गृह विज्ञान के महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न उत्तर के लिए: – क्लिक करें!
Q 6. What is the aesthetic significance of the Mahisasuramardhini in Ellora temple sculpture?
Answer – The aesthetic significance of the Mahisasuramardhini in Ellora temple sculpture are: –
- The Kailasha or Kailashanatha temple at the Ellora Caves in Maharashtra, India, is the biggest of the rock-cut Hindu temples.
- Mahishasuramardini is well-known for her distinctive and exquisite position, which is gracefully exhibited.
- Mahishasuramardini was created to rid the world of evil and to worship other gods.
Q 7. Describe the technique, natural and subject matter of the famous sculpture ‘Nataraja’.
Answer – This poised sculpture of Nataraja belongs to the medieval era and originated in South India under the patronage of the Chola Dynasty in 12th century CE.
The technique of the Nataraja sculpture is: The upper right-hand holds the drum, which signifies the sound of creation. All creations spring from the great sound of the damru. The upper left-hand holds the eternal fire, which represents the destruction.
Nature- Shiva Nataraja is a brilliant invention. It combines in a single image Shiva’s role as creator, preserver, and destroyer of the universe and conveys the Indian conception of the never-ending cycle of time.
Subject matter- The sculpture is symbolic of Shiva as the lord of dance and dramatic arts, with its style and proportions made according to Hindu texts on arts.
Q 8. Evaluate the development and nature of Mauryan Art.
Answer- The development and nature of Mauryan Art:
Development- Art and architecture flourished during the rule of the Mauryan Kings like Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka etc. After the Harappan civilization, monumental stone sculpture and architecture appears only in the Mauryan period. There were pillars, sculptures, rock-cut architecture, buildings like stupas, viharas and chaityas that served many purposes.
Nature- Several art forms were produced in the kingdom, during the fourth to second century BC. The main feature of art and architecture of this period was their transition from wood to stone. Caves, pillars and stupas are examples of Mauryan art and architecture.
Q 9. Write at least thirty words on the style of construction of Golegumbad.
Answer – The style of construction of Golegumbad:
Mohammed Adil Shah built the Gol Gumbaz which is the largest dome in India and the fourth-largest in the world. It was built in the year 1656 CE at Vijayapura.
Golegumbad counts among the finest examples of Deccan Indo-Islamic architectural style. The colossal structure is made out of dark grey basalt. It reaches up to 51 meters in height while the giant dome has an external diameter of 44 meters, making it one of the largest domes ever built.
Q 10. State the names of enlisted Mughal Miniature Paintings along with the name of the painters.
Answer – Mughal painting is the style of miniature painting that developed in the northern Indian subcontinent in the sixteenth century and continued till the mid–nineteenth century. Here is the list of paintings and the artists.
|Name of the painting||Year||Artist|
|1. Princes of the House of Timur||1545-50||Abd us Samad|
|2. Babur inspecting the fort of Gwalior||1598||Bhure, Baburnama,|
|3. Madonna and Child||1590||Basawan|
|4. A Prince and a Hermit||1595||Amir Shahi|
|5. Jahangir in Darbar||1620||Jahangirnama, Abul Hasan and Manoha|
Q 11. Write short notes on the following:
Answer – short notes:
(a) Chaityas: A chaitya, chaitya hall, chaitya-griha, refers to a shrine, sanctuary, temple or prayer hall in Indian religions. The term is most common in Buddhism, where it refers to a space with a stupa and a rounded apse at the end opposite the entrance, and a high roof with a rounded profile.
(b) Viharas: vihara, early type of Buddhist monastery consisting of an open court surrounded by open cells accessible through an entrance porch. The viharas in India were originally constructed to shelter the monks during the rainy season, when it became difficult for them to lead the wanderer’s life.
Q 12. Describe the painting on the story of Dhola-Maru.
Answer – The Dhola Maru is a romantic tale of Dhola and Maru in Rajasthan like Romeo-Juliet saga. This is a love story of Narwar prince Dhola and Poogal princess Maru. It’s a handmade painting on an old paper, this painting depicts a camel ride where in Dhola express his love to Maru. The love Story of Dhola Maru is very popular in Rajasthan and is narrated both in Murals and miniature paintings. The composition of this painting is divided into two parts.
Dhola and Maru are shown seated under a yellow canopy with a red curtain in the upper part of the composition. Dhola is dressed in typical aristocratic attire complete with weapons like sword and shield, facing his lover Maru in Rajasthani costume. The lower part of the composition shows Maru caressing her pet camel. Both the figures are prominent against a green background dotted with flower motifs. Stylised motifs of three trees are bringing a unity in the composition.
Q 13. How did Jivya soma mashe apply tribal art form in his painting?
Answer- Jivya Soma Mashe was an artist of the Maharashtra state in India, who popularised the Warli tribal art form.
Recurring themes, from tribal life and Warli legends, are also a pretext for celebrating life and movement. Jivya Soma Mashe summed up the deep feeling which animates the Warli people, saying “There are human beings, birds, animals, insects, and so on. Everything moves, day and night.
He significantly contributed to the culture and development of the Warlis, a tribe living predominantly in the mountainous and coastal areas of Maharashtra and Gujarat.
His paintings brought alive glimpses of the tribal vision of nature and culture in equilibrium, and for highlighting the contemporary relevance of local forms of knowledge. Through his works, the Warli art form emerged from its cocooned world to draw global fame and attention.
Mashe received international recognition for his work and participated in several exhibitions and festivals across the world.
Q 14. How did Ramkinkar introduce modern sculpture in his work?
Answer – Ramkinkar introduce modern sculpture in his work:
The use of cement and laterite mortar to model the figures, and the use of a personal style in which modern western and Indian pre-classical sculptural values were brought together was equally radical. With this seminal work Ramkinkar established himself as undoubted modern Indian sculptor.
He invented concrete casting as an alternative to the expensive plaster. Some of his really popular sculptures are Sujatha, Santhal Family, Call of the Mill and Harvester. The Call of the Mill made in 1956 stands right opposite the Santhal Family (1938) in the Kala Bhavan premises.
Q 15. Write an essay on Madhubani Painting.
Madhubani painting is a very old form of folk art that originated in the Madhubani district of Bihar. It is made from rice paste and natural colours. The colours are derived from flowers like marigold, rose etc. The paintings show human beings, animals, trees, flowers, birds, etc.
Madhubani art also known as Mithila art is a traditional Indian art form noted for its use of local plants for colours, cow dung to treat the paper and bamboo sticks that serve as brushes, not to mention the beauty and simplicity of the paintings themselves
The background is totally covered with excellent flowers and leaf motifs. Forms are defined by two parallel out lines, outlines, which is a traditional characteristic of Madhubani painting. The space between the two outlines remains white and emphasizes the brightly colour planes of the picture.
Q 16. Write a note on a painting by Nainsukh.
A painting by Nainsukh
Nainsukh, an artist who originally belonged to Guler but had settled at Jasrota. He worked both at Jasrota and at Guler. These paintings are in a new naturalistic and delicate style marking a change from the earlier traditions of the Basohli art. The colours used are soft and cool.
Pahari painting is made by Nainsukh. Mansukh’s work shows strong influences from the Mughal style, even before the influx of artisans from Delhi to the Punjab hills in 1739 in the aftermath of Nader Shah’s invasion. Unlike the brightly-coloured, intense style that dominated the Basohli atelier in the late seventeenth century, his paintings have a muted colour palette and naturalistic rendering of human figures, especially in his depiction of faces and skin colour.
His application of shading over the wash gave the objects and figures in the painting a pronounced solidity without dampening the otherwise light colour palette. He typically depicted landscapes and foliage in as much detail as the characters in the foreground, while aligning and proportioning all the objects and characters according to the architectural structures in the scene, giving the composition a sense of completeness. Patterns, such as those that occur on walls, carpets and clothing, were replicated with great detail.
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Q 17. List the different centres of the “Company School of Art.”
Answer – Company school, also called Patna painting, style of miniature painting that developed in India in the second half of the 18th century in response to the tastes of the British serving with the East India Company. The paintings were executed in watercolours on paper and on mica.
The Subjects of the art included: portraits, landscapes and views, and scenes of Indian people, dancers and festivals. Series of figures of different castes or trades were particular favourites, with an emphasis on differences in costume; now they are equally popular as subjects for analysis by historians of the imperialist mentality.
- West Bengal
- Benares (Varanasi)
- Delhi, Lucknow, and Patna.
Q 18. Write the names of different kind of Decanese painting.
Answer – The colours of the Deccani School painting are rich and brilliant. It is different from the northern paintings. Unique features of the Deccani paintings of the 18th and 19th centuries are witnessed in the treatment of the ethnic types, landscape costumes, jewellery, flora, fauna, and colours.
Ahmednagar painting: This school was patronized by Hussain Nizam Shah I of Ahmednagar. The important illustrated manuscript is “Tarif-i-Hussain Shahi “.
Bijapur Paintings: This school was patronized by Ali Adil Shah I (1558-80 A.D.) and his successor Ibrahim II (1580-1627 A.D.). Important and notable work is Najum-al-ulum (Stars of Sciences), which has as many as 400 miniature illustrations. The court of Sultan Ali Adil Shah I had Persian artists and that is why these paintings show profuse use of gold colour, some flowering plants and arabesques on the top of the throne, derived from the Persian tradition.
Golconda Paintings: The patrons of the Golconda paintings were the Qutb Shahi rulers. The first important work was accomplished during the times of Muhammad Quli Qutab Shah (1580-1611). These paintings show the dancing girls entertaining the VIPs. The Qutb Shahi rulers had employed many Persian artists and so there is a profound impact of Iranian art on the Golconda miniature paintings. Two more notable paintings are the “Lady with the Myna bird” and the “Lady smoking Hooka”.
Q 19. How does folk artist help the rural society?
Answer – Folk artists were influenced by the tradition of a community. They reflect the customs and culture of a community. They not only contribute to the uniqueness of that culture but also presents their practical utility. They are not confined to the objects but also reflects their culture by singing in their native language which revolves around the chores of their daily life. Folk artist gives a representation to a rural culture and tradition.
Folk and traditional arts not only provide us pathways of discovery to history and heritage but open us up to a unique experience of cultural sharing with one another. These art forms make way for more equitable representation of culture heritage in our communities and encourage opportunity to embrace diversity.
Q 20. Write a short note on Qutub Minar.
Qutub Minar is the world’s tallest minaret made of brick. Its height is 72.5 meters and its construction were initiated by Qutub-Ud-Din Aibak. The minaret was built following the architecture of the Minaret of jam located in Afghanistan. The construction started in 1199 by Qutub-ud-din Aibak and was completed by Iltutmish in 1220. It is considered as the symbol of victory as it earmarked the beginning of the Delhi Sultanate in India. Aibak was unable to complete the minaret.
Iltutmish, the successor of Aibak, and his son-in-law constructed three more levels under his supervision. After 169 years, the rest of the tower’s levels were constructed by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. It had a beautiful dome above the 5th floor. It got devastated due to an earthquake. Later, the British Engineer, Major R. Smith designed a Bengali cupola or ‘Chhatri’ and restored its glory. In this paragraph on Qutub Minar, you can see how so many cultures shared their knowledge of architecture to build this minaret.
Every year, thousands of tourists from all over the world witness the magical conglomeration of Afghan and Indo-Islamic architecture. This minaret has a distinct red tinge from the red sandstone in the first three levels and a white tinge in the rest of the levels.
Qutub Minar is one of the oldest minarets in the world. It is the symbol of our diverse culture and heritage evolved from several dynasties of the historical era.
This monument is the ultimate example of architecture and master craftsmanship. It is a very popular tourist site in India and is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India.
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Q 21. Describe the site, medium and size of the following:
(a) Mother Goddess
(b) Seal with Bull design
(a) Mother Goddess:
Site: It has its origin in Mohenjodaro, Pakistan and dates back to Circa 2500 BCE.
Medium: This terracotta sculpture has been made by hand.
Size: 8.5 x 3.4 CM
(b) Seal with Bull design:
Site: The famous Bull-seal of Indus Valley Civilization was found at Harappa site.
Medium: It is made of fired steatite.
Size: 29 mm (1.14) inches on each side.
☞ Nios कक्षा 10 वीं, पेंटिंग के महत्वपूर्ण प्रश्न उत्तर के लिए: – क्लिक करें!
Q 22. Write an appreciative note on lion capital of Sarnath.
Answer – The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back-to-back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals. It was originally placed on the top of the Ashoka pillar at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath by the Emperor Ashoka, in about 250 BCE.
Four lions stand atop the drum, each facing in the four cardinal directions. Their mouths are open roaring or spreading the dharma, the Four Noble Truths, across the land. The lion references the Buddha, formerly Shakyamuni, a member of the Shakya (lion) clan. The lion is also a symbol of royalty and leadership and may also represent the Buddhist king Ashoka who ordered these columns. A chakra (wheel) was originally mounted above the lions.
Lion Capital, Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath:
The pillar reads from bottom to top. The lotus represents the murky water of the mundane world and the four animals remind the practitioner of the unending cycle of samsara as we remain, through our ignorance and fear, stuck in the material world. But the cakras (wheels) between them offer the promise of the Eightfold Path, that guide one to the unmoving centre at the hub of the wheel. Note that in these particular cakras, the number of spokes in the wheel (eight for the Eightfold Path), had not yet been standardized.
Q 23. Write a short note about the technique and method of Ajanta painting.
Answer – Ajanta painting: The paintings in the Ajanta caves predominantly narrate the Jataka tales. These are Buddhist legends describing the previous births of the Buddha. These fables embed ancient morals and cultural lore’s that are also found in the fables and legends of Hindu and Jain texts.
Technique: The painting techniques at Ajanta are similar to European fresco technique. The primary difference is that the layer of plaster was dry when it was painted. First, a rough plaster of clay, cow dung, and rice husks were pressed on to the rough cave walls.
Method: Ajanta Caves were built from the Basalt accumulated in the form of igneous rocks. These rocks were accumulated due to the volcanic eruptions occurred long back. The workers carved the rock with proper planning as cracks also occurred during the process. The workers carved pillars, roofs, and idols out of the rocks.
Q 24. How did Rajasthani miniature painting develop?
Answer – Rajasthani school of painting: It was first seen during the end of the 16th century for Mewar. Many various painting styles developed in Rajasthan over time, though the most famous ones are Kota, Bundi, Bikaner, Kishangarh and Mewar. At present-day Jaipur.
Rajasthani Miniature art was influenced by the Mughal style but it had its own personality and perspective. This part of the difference came from Rajasthani artists’ more lyrical approach, as well as their pleasure from pure lines and colours. The other part of the difference lay in the preoccupation with capturing a sense of sacredness.
development of Rajasthani paintings: first, the patronage of rich Rajputana communities and second, the revival of Vaishnavism and the growth of bhakti cults.
There were a variety of themes in Rajasthani Miniature Paintings, including seasons (Bhahmasa), Ragamala (Rag-Raginis) music, hunting, religious themes from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and love scenes of Radha and Krishna.
These were generally painted in brilliant colours and portrayed court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting and other aspects of social life. They were often exchanged as gifts and were viewed only by the emperor and his close associates.
Q 25. Tabulate two paintings of Jahangir period and indicate the style.
Answer – Jahangir had deep interest in painting art and under him Mughal painting achieved its zenith. During Jahangir, the Persian and Indian style of painting were fully synthesized. The Indian painting became free from foreign influence during his reign.
Most of the paintings created during the time of Jahangir depict the durbar scenes, portraits, bird, animal and flower studies.
Two paintings of Jahangir period:
Ustad Mansur was a court artist of Jehangir, who specialised in depicting plants and animals. He is best known for two paintings one of which was a Siberian crane and another was of a Bengal Florican. He is also remembered for a famous painting on Dodo, the now extinct Bird.
Bishandas was praised by the emperor as “unrivalled in the art of portraiture”. In 1613, Bishandas was sent on a diplomatic mission to Persia, to paint the Shah’s portrait. He remained there for seven years and returned happily with an elephant as gift.
Q 26. Assess the role of Amrita Shergil in the development of Contemporary Indian Art.
Answer – Amrita Sher-Gil, a pioneer of modern Indian art, used her paintbrush to depict the daily lives of Indian women in the 1930s, often revealing a sense of their loneliness and even hopelessness. She painted women going to the market, women at a wedding, women at home. Sometimes she showed women bonding with other women.
Sher-Gil’s visual language introduced a host of new elements in modern Indian art. For one, her handling of the oil medium opened up new possibilities for a future generation of artists. Her distinctive vision left its mark on pre-Independence modern painting. Her female forms demanded attention.
Q 27. How did poet Jaidev influence the painters of Pahari school?
Answer – Jayadeva had a profound influence on the Pahari school during the 17th-19th centuries, which was prevalent throughout northern India bordering the Himalayas (from Jammu through Himachal Pradesh). In particular, Jayadeva’s Radha and Krishna served as popular themes for Basohli painting in Jammu and Kashmir.
Q 28. Write a very short note on the painting “A Group of Kashmiri Artisans”.
“A Group of Kashmiri Artisans”
A painting has a mention that it is done on paper with watercolour that is the painting “A Group of Kashmiri Artisans’. In this painting a group consisting of eight men, two women and three children were painted. In this painting the men are engrossed in embroidering colourful shawls.
The Kashmir school of painting is an esoteric subject of art history of India, although much has been recorded about the old-fashioned Kashmiri construction and modeling in modern times. It is reliable that Kashmir generates no archaeological remains of pictures neither we know anything concerning the representation to reconstruct the sequential account of art in Kashmir. This scarcity of archaeological element professes a critical emptiness in reconstitution and understanding of the memoir of the painting of Kashmiri population in early days but nevertheless, it indicates that art was an anonymous or overlooked preparation of fine arts to the Kashmiri community.
Q 29. Write on the main characteristics of the statue “Mother Goddess of Harappa”.
Answer – One of the most fascinating figures from the Indus Valley Civilization is the sculpture titled ‘Mother Goddess’. This terracotta sculpture has been made by hand. It has its origin in Mohenjodaro, Pakistan and dates back to Circa 2500 BCE. It is 22cm in height, 8.5cm in width and 3.4 cm in depth.
Characteristics of the statue “Mother Goddess of Harappa”
- The artist has made this idol with smooth clay by hand.
- Worked on this idol with a small wooden stick.
- After drying in the first shade after making the idol, it was dry in fire.
- The idol of the Mother Goddess is the ancient clay idol of the world. It holds its place first among all ancient idols.
- The colour of this idol is red like burnt bricks.
- Two semi-circular lamps are decorated on
- the head of the idol.
- According to the estimation of history, tillage was filled with oil in these lamps.
- There are double embossed strips above the lamps.
- A lamp has been made full for decoration.
- The hair of the idol has been made upwards.
- The clothes of the idol have been made just above the knee (dress like skirt).
Q 30. Describe the theme and beauty of the painting “Mara Vijaya” of Ajanta.
Answer – Theme of Mara-Vijaya narrates the story of the conquest on all the vices and temptation of the material world by Buddha during his meditation. In this painting, the defeat of the young women is shown, who tried to disturb the concentration of Buddha.
Q 31. Which Indo-Islamic monument is considered as one of the wonders of the world? Review it.
Answer – The Taj Mahal is considered to be the greatest architectural achievement in the whole range of Indo-Islamic architecture.
Taj Mahal is one of the ‘Seven Wonders’ on the world. It is a marble mausoleum, built by Mughal King Shah Jahan for his beloved wife Mumtaz. Taj Mahal houses the tomb of Shah Jahan and his wife. It sprawls across an area of forty-two acres and features a manicured garden, a mosque and a guest house. The construction of this timeless monument started in the year 1632 and the entire complex was completed around 1653. The monument houses twenty-two white domes that symbolize the fact that it took twenty-two years to complete the Taj Mahal.
Q 32. What do you know about Raja Ravi Varma? Describe one of his paintings.
Answer – Raja Ravi Varma (29 April 1848 – 2 October 1906) was an Indian painter and artist. He is considered among the greatest painters in the history of Indian art. His works are one of the best examples of the fusion of European academic art with a purely Indian sensibility and iconography.
Ravan and Jatayu
- This picture has been made by Raja Ravi Varma.
- The paintings are made with oil colors and neoclassical style.
- He has created visual and personal portraits.
- In this picture, an excerpt from the Ramayana story is shown.
- In this picture Jatayu is shown rescuing Ravana.
- Western influence is clearly seen in the picture.
- Mobility is given importance in this picture.
Q 33. Write short note on the following:
(a) The great Stupa of Sanchi
(b) Chauri Bearer
(a) The great Stupa of Sanchi
Sanchi Stupa stands inside an ancient Buddhist complex in Madhya Pradesh, situated on top of a hill in a small town called Sanchi. The complex is best known for the Great Stupa, one of the oldest stone Buddhist monuments in India. With over 2,000 years of history, it remains a living example of the art and architecture that flourished during the rule of Emperor Ashoka.
Great Stupa is a UNESCO World the Heritage Site and located a short trip away from Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh. If you are a history fanatic or an admirer of architectural brilliance, step out of your hotels in Bhopal and plan a trip to the Great Stupa at Sanchi.
The Great Stupa at Sanchi exhibits the Buddhist architectural style. With a height of 54 feet and a pedestal diameter of 120 feet, it is one of the largest of its kind in the whole country. The main structure of the Stupa is a hemispherical dome that has a simple design. The dome rests on a base, under which is a relic chamber. According to popular beliefs, the dome was constructed over the relics belonging to Lord Buddha.
The railings surrounding the Great Stupa are devoid of any artistic decor. These railings are nothing more than plain slabs bearing dedicatory inscriptions. There are four intricately ornamented ceremonial gateways that face all four directions. Scenes from Jataka stories, events of Buddha’s life, scenes from early Buddhism period, and several auspicious symbols are carved on these ceremonial gateways.
(b) Chauri Bearer
Through the annals of time, history has thrived on discoveries that have shaken erstwhile beliefs and theories of the ancient past. India is replete with such unearthed treasures, one of them being the Chauri-Bearer (flywhisk-bearer) statue from Didarganj, commonly known as Didarganj Yakshi.
The main Features
- The statue comes under the fine polish Mauryan art.
- It is dated to the 2nd century BCE.
- Kushan period is characterised in particular by the forelock.
- Polished sandstone is the material that is used in making this statue.
- At present, this statue is placed at the Bihar Museum.
- The statue was found by the archaeological department in 1917.
- The length of the statue is 64″.
- The sculpture is free-standing.
- The statue is also well proportioned.
- On the banks of the Ganga River, the Didarganj Yakshi was found by excavation.
Q 34. Write atleast thirty words of appreciation on “Triumph of Labour”.
“Triumph of Labour”
The Triumph of Labour, also known as the Labour statue was sculpted by Debi Prasad Roy Chowdhury. This statue is located at Marina Beach, Chennai, India. This statue depicts four men toiling to move a rock, which symbolically represents the hard work of labouring class.
- This is one of the most outstanding examples of contemporary art.
- The casting of the sculpture shows mastery of the artists over their subjects.
- The designs of such sculptures are perfectly shaped and composed.
- The statue Triumph of Labour is a masterpiece.
Q 35. Write a short note on Kalamkari painting.
Answer – Kalamkari painting
Kalamkari is an ancient style of hand painting done on cotton or silk fabric with a tamarind pen, using natural dyes.
The word Kalamkari is derived from a Persian word where ‘kalam ‘means pen and ‘Kari ‘refers to craftsmanship. This art involves 23 tedious steps of dyeing, bleaching, hand painting, block printing, starching, cleaning and more. Motifs drawn in Kalamkari spans from flowers, peacock, paisleys to divine characters of Hindu epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana. Nowadays, this art is primarily done to create Kalamkari sarees.
Kalamkari originated in the modern-day states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana several hundred years ago.
It was first used to portray scenes from sacred texts such as the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Bhagavatam. These paintings were often displayed as decorative backdrops in temples, depicting the stories of deities.
Q 36. Write the main features of Sarnath Buddha.
Answer – Sarnath Buddha – The Buddha Preaching his First Sermon is a stone sculpture of the 5th-century CE showing Gautama Buddha in the “teaching posture” or Dharmachakra pravartana mudrā.
The main features of Sarnath Buddha:
- It is made of stone and stands tall with a height of 91.1 cm.
- It is regarded to be a masterpiece of Gupta art and craftsmanship.
- The designs of such sculptures are perfectly shaped.
- The design of the sculptures is very minutely and accurately compared.
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Q 37. Describe some features of Indus Valley Art.
Answer – The arts of the Indus Valley Civilization were found to be emerging during the second half of the third millennium. Sculptures, seals, pottery, jewellery, and terracotta figures were some of the art forms found in different civilization sites.
Features of Indus Valley Art:
Stone Statues: The stone, bronze, or terracotta statues found in Harappan sites were not in large quantities but were refined. Found at Harappa and Mohenjodaro, the stone statues are perfect examples of three-dimensional handling volumes.
Terracotta: If we compare the terracotta images and the bronze and stone statues made by Indus valley people, the terracotta representations were unrefined in the Indus Valley.
Dancing girl statue: The dancing girl statue is known as one of the best artefacts from the Indus Valley. It is a bronze statue with a height of four-inch.
Seals: The archaeologists discovered thousands of seals were discovered by the archaeologists, and most of them were made up of steatite, but some were made of agate, copper, and terracotta.
The Indus Valley civilization has very highly skilled artists and craftsmen. The artists made a variety of artefacts, seals, pottery, terracotta figures etc.
Q 38. Write the main features of the statue of Jain Tirthankara.
Answer – A Jain Tirthankara is a dharma rescuer & spiritual leader in Jainism. The term Tirthankara refers to the creator of such a tirtha, a navigable path through an unending stream of births and deaths known as the samsara. A Jain Tirthankara, as per Jains, is a person who has mastered the samsara, or process of death and resurrection, through their own and paved the way for someone else to pursue.
24 Tirthankaras are born. According to Jain’s belief, the Tirthankaras became royalty during their later life, and Jain writings chronicle details of their earlier lives. Their ancestors and relatives have also been mentioned in legends.
Features of the statue are:
- This idol is situated on a square platform in meditation, and is in Vajraparyakasana posture.
- The idol of Jain Tirthankara is a great gift of the Gupta era.
- Mahavir Swami was the 24 Tirthankara of Jainism.
- This statue has a beautiful display of feelings and thoughts of the followers.
- Mahavir Swami stressed on attaining salvation.
- Emphasized faith, proper action and truth.
- All these feelings are engraved in this statue.
- This statue was obtained from Mathura.
Q 39. Write the characteristics of Mughal Miniature painting.
Answer – Miniature paintings are delicate handmade paintings, much smaller in size than a normal painting. It is also called limning, small, finely wrought portrait executed on vellum, prepared card, copper, or ivory.
- Confined to Mughal court: Mughal painting remained confined to the Mughal court and did not reach the people.
- A synthesis of Indian and Persian elements: The Mughal rulers brought Persian painters with them. At the same time, they patronized Indian painters and the collaboration between these two schools of painters resulted in the synthesis.
- Main themes of painting: Apart from Persian books of fables, themes from Mahabharata were also selected. Indian scenes and landscapes came into vogue.
- Abundant use of colours: Golden colours considered to be the symbols of prosperity of the Mughals began to be used increasingly.
- Climax of Mughal painting: Jahangir had a very discriminating eye and Mughal painting reached its climax of glory during his reign.
Q 40. Write on any painting done during Shah Jahan’s period.
The painting of Shah Jahan Court
The development of Mughal kingdom was drooped when Shah Jahan took up the throne. The financial condition also became very severe. Therefore, as a sensible ruler he also neglected the Imperial studio of painting and concentrated more on other more important things.
Most of the paintings of Shahjahan’s time were concentrated on the first decade of his reign. Only major manuscript done by Shah Jahan was a journal, which was all about praising his reigning period. This journal covered twenty years and in it the paintings were executed simultaneously with the texts. Despite of the financial problems, he did not cut the financial support to the painters working under his patronage.