Nios Class 12th History Solved Previous Year Question Paper in English Medium
Question – Write the names of two important literary sources of Mauryan history.
Answer – There are two types of sources of Mauryan history. One is literary and the other is archaeological Literary sources include Kautilya’s Arthashastra, Visakha Dutt’s Mudra Rakshasa, Megasthenes’ Indica, Buddhist literature, and the Puranas Archaeological sources include Ashokan edicts and inscriptions and materials such as silver and copper punch-marked coins.
Question – What is the Iron Pillar at Mehrauli in Delhi known for?
Answer: The Iron Pillar of Delhi is one of the best examples of medieval metallurgy. It was located in Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh. It was one of the successful experiments to mix and alloy different metals, which is strongest. Today, we call this steel Wootz steel. This steel was taken to Damascus and the swords made from it were called ‘Damascus Blades’. He was considered the best for fighting in the world.
Question – What was the difference between ‘Khet sharing’ and ‘Leng sharing’ in medieval India?
Ans:- In medieval times, Khet Baya was known as a term used to describe a method of land revenue valuation
- In Khet Baya, the crop was divided when it was in the field itself, marking the division of the field
- Whereas, in Land Baya, the crop was piled up, cut into heaps, the grain was not separated and the division was made.
Question – What is meant by the policy of appeasement?
Answer – The policy of appeasement was the diplomatic policy of giving concession to the enemy country to avoid war. This was a policy followed by Britain and France during 1935-39. This policy allowed Hitler to violate the terms of the Treaty of Versailles so as not to do anything bad. The aim of the policy was to establish peace and ensure that humanity did not face the Second World War.
Question – What are the four great truths of Buddhism?
Answer: The Four Noble Truths contain the essence of the Buddha’s teachings, although they leave them unexplained. They are the truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering the truth of the end of suffering, and the truth of the path leading to the end of suffering
Describe the religious beliefs of the Harappans.
Answer Indus Valley religion is polytheistic and is composed of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. There are many seals to support the evidence of the Indus Valley gods. Some seals depict animals that resemble two deities, Shiva and Rudra. Other seals depict a tree that the Indus Valley believed to be the tree of life.
Question – How was Aurangzeb’s policy towards Rajputs different from Akbar’s policy?
Answer – The Rajput policy of Aurangzeb was completely different from that of Akbar Aurangzeb followed the policy of friendship with the Rajputs, Aurangzeb followed the policy of enmity. Akbar made alliances with the Rajput states, which made the Mughal Empire a strong empire, but Aurangzeb pursued a policy of annihilation of the Rajputs, which made the Mughals a death bed. Akbar adopted matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs but Aurangzeb followed a policy of religious intolerance with them
Examine the effects of Timur’s invasion on the Delhi Sultanate.
Answer – The results of Timur’s invasion of India are:
- He plundered the treasury of the Delhi Sultanate and built a slaughterhouse for the Hindus.
- His invasion led to the downfall of the Tughlaq dynasty.
- The Sayyid dynasty which became the feudatories of Timur started ruling Delhi, but never declared themselves as independent rulers. After the death of Timur Saidis, his successor Shahrukh was accepted as his king. Timur’s invasion weakened the Delhi Sultanate and the Northwest Indians and paved the way for several attacks on this part from Afghanistan and Central Asia.
Question – Describe the causes of Anglo-French conflict in South India.
Answer – Due to the Anglo-French conflict of South India –
- The French state of the time was autocratic semi-feudal, and unpopular and was rife with corruption, inefficiency, and instability
- Rather than being forward-looking, it was decadent, bound by tradition, and generally inappropriate for the time. Control by such state cannot be prejudicial to the interests of the company.
- In 1742, war broke out in Europe between France and England. One of the major causes of the war was the rivalry over the colonies in America Another was their business rivalry in India. This rivalry was intensified by the knowledge that the Mughal Empire was disintegrating and therefore the rewards of trade or territory were likely to be much greater than in the past.
Question – Why was the Hunter Commission established? Mention its main recommendations.
Answer: The Hunter Education Commission was a historical commission appointed by the Viceroy Lord Ripon for the purpose of looking into complaints of nonimplementation of the Woods Despatch of 1854: the contemporary state of elementary education in the British territories and suggestion means by which it can be increased
The main recommendations of the commission were as follows
- In the field of primary education, the Commission has made detailed recommendations on the lines of the Country Council Act of England with regard to its policy, objectives, curriculum, methods of teaching, teacher training, finance and administration etc. Education was foed on the local bodies
- The curriculum should be designed as per the local requirements and with proper emphasis on its practical aspects
- Mother tongue should be the medium of instruction at the primary stage. The commission was silent about the secondary stage. Therefore, indirectly, it supported the cause of the English
- The commission recommended the establishment of a model government high school in each district.
- Two types of courses were recommended in Phase II. ‘A’ type courses were to be carried out up to the university level and ‘B’ type for imparting vocational education, Thus, the commission laid special emphasis on diversification of courses
- For primary teacher training, the number of general schools should be increased or established
- Local co-operation and private efforts should be given proper impetus. It suggested the creation of a fund for the development of education in the country and the government was made responsible for providing grant-in-aid.
- Emphasis was placed on Indianization of education. The result was a huge increase in the number of institutions at different levels of education
- Government institutions were banned for imparting religious education. Private institutions had the freedom to manage their affairs in their own way. This creates a policy of religious neutrality on the part of the government.
- Emphasis on diversity in women’s education curriculum, award of scholarships and facilities in appointments
- Due to encouragement to the Muslims, education was given and attention was paid to give them proper facilities
- The commission also recommended for proper system of education of backward classes
Thus, the recommendations of the Hunter Commission (1882) dealt a major blow to the efforts of the Christian missionaries. Individual efforts and local cooperation were encouraged and encouraged. This led to Indianization of education. The result was an increase in the number of schools and colleges. Grant-in-aid system was recognized by the government and emphasis was laid on imparting useful knowledge.
But the most important recommendation of the commission was regarding the development and improvement of primary education. The practice of appointing an Indian as school inspector was adopted in the education department. Government institutions followed a policy of religious neutrality.
Question. What was the effect of the partition of Bengal on the national movement of India?
Answer. Bengal was partitioned in 1905 by Viceroy Curzon. At that time, Bengal was the largest province of British India. It included parts of Bihar and Orissa. Administrative convenience was cited as the reason for the partition of Bengal. Most analysts believe that the partition was done to reduce the influence of the Bengali politician and divide the Bengali people Effects of Partition of Bengal: People all over India were angry with the partition of Bengal. It was opposed by all sections of the Congress. Large public meetings and demonstrations were held to oppose the decision. The struggle against the partition of Bengal is known as the Swadeshi Movement. It was strongest in Bengal, but was felt in other parts of the country as well. This was known as Vande Mataram movement in Andhra.
Question:- Examine the main terms of the Gandhi-Irwin Pact.
Answer: Gandi-Irwin Pact (1931)
The government agreed to:
- Withdraw all ordinances and abolish all laws.
- Release all prisoners except those convicted of violence.
iii. Restore the Satyagraha policy.
- Allow peaceful picketing of alcohol and foreign goods.
- Allow free collection of salt
Congress agreed to:
- Attend the second round table conference.
- Postponement of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Not to suppress investigations against police actions.
Question – Examine the international consequences of the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Answer – International results of the Russian Revolution of 1917 –
- The government is taken over by the Bolshevik Party led by VI Lenin. Later, it would become known as the Communist Party.
- Farmland is distributed among the farmers, and factories are given to the workers
- Banks are nationalized and a national council is assembled to run the economy
- Russia exits World War I, signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Plenty of land for Germany.
- Czarist rule ends, Nicholas II, his wife and five children are executed.
- Civil war between Bolshevik (“red”) and Bolshevik (“white”) armies, sweep Russia from 1918 to 1920. About 15 million die in conflict and famine
- The Russian economy is in a shambles. Industrial production falls, but all trade ceases, and skilled workers flee the country.
- Lenin claimed control of his vast, brutal and brutal network of prison camps for both criminals and political prisoners.
Question: Examine the factors responsible for the sharp recession in America.
Answer – It is said that the Great Depression started with the USA Stock Market Crash in October 1929. To be precise, the stock market crashed on October 24, 1929, which is known in American history as “Black Thursday
The effects of the stock market crash caused panic among investors in Wall Street, which caused nearly $30 billion in losses from the stock market. This led to the crashing of other major financial institutions such as banks.
Due to the Great Depression –
The Great Depression is attributed to a combination of the following factors
- Monetary policies adopted by the central bank of America,
- stock market crash of 1929
iii. The failure of banks, which was the effect of the stock market crash as more people lost all their savings led to the banks closing.
- Decrease in purchases due to less savings
- Passage of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff or the Tariff Act of 1930, which imposed higher taxes on imported goods. As a retaliation for the same, trading partners imposed higher tariffs on goods manufactured in the United States, resulting in a decline of about two thirds in world trade between the period 1929-34.
- Environmental degradation from drought and farming practices that did not help conserve the soil created large areas of non-agricultural land. It was known in history as the Dust Bowl. This coupled with dust storms that destroyed crops and livestock?
Question – What is meant by Truman principle? What was its main purpose?
- The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy aimed at countering Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.
- It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947, and was further developed on July 12, 1948, when he promised a threat to Greece and Turkey
- The Truman Doctrine was introduced in 1947 by President Harry S. Truman issued
- In this doctrine, President Truman stated that the United States will do whatever it takes to stop the spread of communism and stop the United States’ former ally, the Soviet Union.
- So, like in the film, the Truman doctrine held that the United States would pull all stops to ruin the plans of its former friend.