Nios Class 12th History (315) Most Important Questions with Solutions in English Medium Full SyllabusTeam Manish Verma
Lesson – 1
Question 1. What do you understand by ‘Jataka’?
Answer- ‘Jataka’ are stories related to the previous birth of Lord Buddha. Jataka tales are associated with Buddhism. These stories depict events from the life of Buddha. It is believed that Buddha had 550 more births before being born as Gautam. The story of every birth is called a Jatak. These stories throw very important light on the social and economic conditions of the period between the fifth and second centuries BC.
Question 2. How does archeology help us in understanding the past?
Answer – Archeology works to understand the evolution of human culture by studying and analyzing ancient objects.
Archeology helps in many ways, including:
- It teaches us to systematically excavate the layers of old mounds one after the other and to make inferences about the physical life of humans of bygone era on the basis of the remains found there.
- History- Archeology is very important for the study of the ancient period, that is, the era before the invention of writing.
- Archeology seeks to explain the history of culture, reconstruct past ways of life, and document and explain changes in human societies through time.
- History is basically based on written material. Although in India around 2500 B.C. Even during the period of Indus Valley culture, writing had become prevalent, but that script has not been deciphered till now. Thus, although the Harappans knew how to write, historians have not been able to read that writing. Their culture has been placed in the early historical period. The earliest script that has been read is Brahmi, which was written in B.C. The script is from the third century and has been used in the inscriptions of Ashoka.
- Takes help from archaeology, humanities and other natural sciences. Archaeologists identify old objects through a special type of process. They try to find out what social and economic differences there were among the people living in a particular culture.
Question 3. Why do historians use the C-14 dating method?
Answer –The antiquity or age of the remains found during excavation is determined by several methods. The most important among these is the radiocarbon or carbon-14 (C-14) dating method which is mostly used by historians. Carbon-14 is a radioactive carbon that is present in all forms of life. After the death of living beings, like all radioactive substances, it also gets destroyed at a certain uniform rate. The age of any ancient material (wood or bone) can be estimated by the extent to which its C-14 elements have decayed.
Lesson – 2
Question 4. Write the names of any two such tribes who entered India through the north-western hill routes in ancient times?
Answer – The tribes named Shaka and Kushan entered India through the north-western hilly routes in ancient times. The Shaka and Kushan tribes belonged to the same tribe. The Shakas were a group of Indo-European peoples who invaded India around the 2nd century BCE. The Kushan people belonged to the Yueh-chi/Yuchi tribe who lived in Chinese Turkistan. Under pressure from other tribes they moved towards the east and came to India.
Question 5. Explain the main features and uses of the tools used during the Paleolithic era.
Answer – Tools used during Paleolithic Age:
The main tools in the Paleolithic Age were hand axe, pickaxe and cutting tools. These tools were very clumsy and heavy and were made of stones. Gradually, sharp and light tools started being made.
The main tools of the Middle Stone Age were flat tools like pebbles. In the later Stone Age, the basic tools used were burins and scrapers.
Main features of the tools:
- In a handle axe, the handle is wide and the working part is thin.
- The head of the saw was divided into two parts.
- Gandasa was a main tool which had only one working end.
- Peeling tools (scrapers) were also made of thin tiles.
- Burins (axes) were like thin plates or blades. They were used for digging work on soft stones, bones or rocks.
Main uses of tools:
- They were used for cutting trees and digging roots.
- Saws were used to cut tree trunks.
- Gandasa was used for cutting work.
- Scrapers were used to obtain bark of trees and animal skin and for peeling work.
- Burin (axe) was used for digging work on soft stones, bones or rocks.
Lesson – 3
Question 6. Why is Indus Valley Civilization called Harappan Civilization?
Answer – The Indus Valley Civilization was first excavated at a site called ‘Harappa’ located in present-day Pakistan. Hence it is also called ‘Harappan Civilization’.
Question 7. Give a detailed trade relations description of the Harappans with Mesopotamia.
Answer – Introduction
An important feature of the urban economy of the Harappan people was their trade network, both internally (within the country) and externally (within foreign countries). Merchants established trade relations with foreign lands, especially Mesopotamia, where these goods were in greater demand.The trade relationship between the Harappans and Mesopotamia was an important part of ancient history.
Trade relations of the Harappans with Mesopotamia:
Textiles and useful metals: It is worth noting that the craftsmen needed many types of metals and precious gems to make their things, but due to them not being available locally, these things had to be imported from outside.The presence of this raw material at other places away from its place of origin naturally indicates that these goods must have reached there through the process of exchange of goods at those places.It is believed that silver was probably also obtained from Mesopotamia in exchange for the replacement of Harappan goods.
Foreign-Trade: The people of Harappa also did foreign trade with Mesopotamia.This trade mainly took place through Oman and Bahrain located in the Persian Gulf.This is confirmed by the presence of artefacts like beads, seals, dice pieces etc. found in the Harappan areas.Although art works from those areas have been found at very few places in the Harappan sites, a seal of Western Asian or Persian origin has been found in Lothal, which confirms this connection.
Harappan Seals: About two dozen Harappan seals have been found from the cities of Mesopotamia.Apart from the seals, other artefacts of Harappan origin found there include pottery, carved carnelian beads and dice.
Evidence of Trade from Inscriptions: Inscriptions found in Mesopotamia give us valuable information regarding the contacts of Mesopotamia with Harappa.These inscriptions indicate trade with Dilmun, Magan and Meluluh.Scholars have identified contacts at Meluluh with the Harappan region, at Magan with the Makran coast, and at Dilmun with Bahrain.These indicate that Mesopotamia imported copper, carzilian, ivory, shells, lapis lazuli, pearls and ebony from Meluluh.
Exports from Mesopotamia to Harappa: Items exported from Mesopotamia to Harappa included ready-made clothes, wool, perfumes, leather goods and silver.Apart from silver, all these things are perishable.Because of which we do not find remains of these objects at the Harappan sites.
The Harappans’ trade relations with Mesopotamia were part of an exciting historical event.There were trade and cultural relations between the Harappan civilization and the Mesopotamian region, which included present-day Iraq and, to a limited extent, Iran.
Lesson – 4
Question 8. What were the major economic activities during the Later Vedic period?
Answer – Introduction
The Later Vedic period, also known as the Upanishadic period from the economic point of view, represents a period after the Vedas, and during this period there were various economic activities in the Indian society. Some of the major economic activities were:
In the later Vedic period, agriculture became the main occupation of the Vedic people.Many religious rituals were started to start the process of farming.It also said that six and eight pairs of oxen should be harnessed for ploughing.Buffalo were reared in homes for farming purposes. This animal was very useful for plowing the marshy land.The god Indra was given a new nickname in this work, ‘God of Agriculture’.The number of foods grown from plants increased significantly.Apart from barley, these people now cultivated wheat, rice, pulses, lentils, millet, sugarcane etc.Cooked rice was included in the ‘Donation-Dakshina’ items. Thus, after the introduction of food products, agricultural products started being donated to religious rituals.Sesame seeds, from which the most edible vegetable oil was extracted, began to be used in religious rituals.
An important element of the expansion of Aryan civilization in the later Vedic period, 1000 BC. The use of iron was to begin around 1500.The metal with which the people of the Rigvedic period were familiar with the name ‘Ayas’ might have been ‘copper’ or ‘bronze’.In the later Vedic period, the adjective ‘Shyam’ or ‘Krishna’ was added to ‘Ayas’, which meant ‘black’ and was known as an indicator of iron.Archaeological evidence has shown that iron was used as early as 1000 BC. It started around 500 BC, which is considered to be the period of later Vedic literature.Iron tools greatly facilitated the efficient clearing of dense rain forests, especially the large stumps of trees left after burning, and the conversion of vast forested areas into agricultural land in a shorter time than before. could have been changed.Iron plow could be used to plow deep soil so that the land could be made fertile.
3.Population and Painting
During the later Vedic period, the population continued to increase due to the expansion of the agriculture-based economy.There is evidence of increase in the population of the Doab areas due to the increase in the number and size of painted tawny colored pottery (PGW) remains.With the passage of time, the Vedic people also acquired excellent knowledge of seasons, fertilizers and irrigation.
4.Method, system and expertise
Law and order had an important place in the later Vedic society.Here the rules and regulations of Dharmashastra and prosperity were prepared, which were followed.Specialization: Research and production in the field of skill and expertise was also an important economic activity.In this, expertise was developed in medicine, astrology, mathematics, Tantrashastra, and other fields.
All these developments resulted in real expansion at some sites, such as Hastinapura and Kaushambi, in the late Late Vedic period.Gradually the characteristics of cities started developing in these places.Such semi-developed cities, where mainly noble princes, clergy and artisans lived, their population was supported by the peasants, who willingly or unwillingly gave them their grains.
Question 9.Who were the Aryans? Describe the main features of Aryan civilization.
Answer –The Aryans were Central Asian steppe nomads who entered northwest India between about 2000 BC and 1500 BC and were called Indo-Aryans or simply Aryans, giving rise to the Indo-European languages of this subcontinent.
Main features of Aryan civilization:
Importance of Vedas: The important feature of Aryan civilization was their sacred texts, which are called Vedas.The Vedas are religious and philosophical texts, and provide knowledge, the importance of the seasons, and various aspects of religion.
- Yagya and worship of gods: Yagya and worship of gods were important in Arya Samaj.There is significant information about Yagyas in the Vedas, and it was a part of religious and social events.
- Caste System: Caste system started in Aryan civilization.The Vedas mention the system of four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra.
- Rural Lifestyle: Arya Samaj was based in villages and followed rural lifestyle.Agriculture and animal husbandry were the main economic activities.
- Sanskrit language: Aryan civilization developed the Sanskrit language and made it the language of the Vedas.The Sanskrit language formed the core of the Indian languages and remained important for language, literature, and religious curriculum.
- Gupta Emperor Chakravarti System: The Gupta Emperor Chakravarti system started in the Arya Samaj, in which the emperor was the ruler of the state and his administration was organized.
- Vedic Religion: The original religious stream of Aryan civilization was Vedic religion, in which worship of Gods and Goddesses and Yagyas had an important place.
- Creativity and Knowledge Transmission: Arya Samaj gave importance to creativity, knowledge, and education and made significant contributions to science, mathematics, philosophy, and literary writing.
Aryan civilization played an important role in the development of Indian civilization and established the basic components of Indian culture.
Lesson – 5
Question 10. Give details of any four ‘Mahajan posts’ of the sixth century BC along with their capital and modern location.
Answer –Four Mahajanapadas:
- ‘Vajji’: ‘Vajji’ whose capital was ‘Vaishali’ and its modern place was ‘Vaishali’ and it was ruled by Licchavi.These oligarchies were mostly in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains.Later, they were ousted and conquered by the Magadha Empire.
- ‘Magadha’: Whose capital was ‘Girivraj/Rajgir’ and its modern place was ‘Gaya and Patna’. The first mention of Magadha is found in Atharva Veda.According to Abhiyan Chintamani, Magadha has been called ‘Keekat’.
- ‘Panchal’: Panchal whose capital was ‘Ahichhatra and Kampilya’ and its modern location was ‘Western Uttar Pradesh’. This state was spread in the plains between the Bhabhar region of the Himalayas in the north and the northern bank of the Charmanvati river in the south.Panchal was named because of the five sons of King Haryashva. The king of this kingdom was Panchala king King Drupada.
- ‘Kuru’: Kuru whose capital was ‘Indraprastha’ and its modern location was ‘Meerut and South East Haryana’. The foundation of the Kuru dynasty and empire was laid by King Kuru.King Kuru was the son of King Samvaran of Hastinapur.The descendants of the Kuru dynasty are called Kauravas in India. Both Kauravas and Pandavas belonged to the Kuru dynasty.
Question 11. How did geographical elements play an important role in the rise of Magadha?
Answer –Magadha emerged as a very powerful state and became the center of a vast empire.The first important ruler of Magadha was Bimbisara who ruled in 544 BC. to 492 B.C. During this period he ruled for 52 years.The Magadha Empire originated from the 6th century BC to the 4th century BC. Till then four Mahajanapadas Magadha, Kosala, Vatsa and Avanti were engaged in struggle to establish supremacy over each other.Magadha eventually emerged as the most powerful and prosperous empire in North India.
Contribution of geographical elements in the rise of Magadha:
The old capital Girivraj or Rajgir: Magadha undoubtedly benefited from many capable and ambitious kings, but their power was basically based on certain geographical features.Their old capital Girivraj or Rajgir was surrounded by five hills on all sides which protected it as a natural fort.
Fertile land of the River Valley: Due to the fertile land of the river valley of this place, conditions were created due to the production of additional agricultural products here, as a result of which a large military force could be raised.
Excessive Population: Excessive population of Magadha region played an important role towards development in the field of trade and agriculture.This provided a greater labor force, which promoted agriculture and trade.
Iron Mines, Timber and Elephants: Timber and elephants were found in the southern regions.Along with this, Magadha got another benefit from this place that it got control over the iron mines found near South Bihar.The Magadha Empire’s access to iron made its weapons much better and farming tools more productive.This background of physical development helped in making Magadha more powerful than other Mahajanapadas.
The combination of these geographical factors made the Magadha region an extremely important and powerful region of North India and played an important role in its rise.
Lesson – 14
Question 12. Describe the main characteristics of the Bhakti movement.
There was a period of Hindu-Muslim conflict since the Sultanate period.Delhi Sultans started committing atrocities against Hindu religion.They started destroying many temples and statues.Due to which Hindus gave importance to monotheism to protect their religion and the religious reformer started a movement, this movement became famous by the name of Bhakti movement.
Salient Features of Bhakti Movement:
- Simple and unostentatious form:
The nature of the Bhakti movement was very simple and without any ostentation.It was very easy to follow.In the medieval period, people had become troubled with the complexities of Brahmin religion.In such a situation the Bhakti movement originated.Seeing its simplicity, a large number of people started getting inclined towards it.There was no place for any kind of superstitions and rituals in the Bhakti movement.The basis of the Bhakti movement was simply love for God and devotion to Him with a true heart.
- Opposition to idol worship:
Idol worship had no place in the Bhakti movement.The main reason for this was that the saints of the Bhakti movement did not show any interest in idol worship.Saints like Kabir also strongly opposed idol worship.Therefore, idol worship was not given place in the Bhakti movement. This was the second biggest feature of the Bhakti movement.
- Belief in one God:
The saints who participated in the Bhakti movement believed in only one God instead of worshiping different gods and goddesses.Each saint individually worshiped Ram and some Krishna, but the main aim of all was to worship the Almighty God only.They did not worship multiple gods and goddesses simultaneously.
- Opposition to casteism:
The saints who participated in the Bhakti movement opposed caste discrimination.Instead of considering people as Brahmins, Vaishyas, Kshatriyas and Shudras, they looked at every human being from the same perspective.According to him, after taking refuge in God, there is no difference between man and man.Many saints like Chaitanya, Ramanand, Namdev set an example by taking people who were considered untouchable in the society as their disciples.
- Emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity:
The saints of the Bhakti movement laid special emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity.While saints like Kabir criticized Hindus for their evils, they did not spare Muslims also.He criticized both for stoking the growing bitterness between Hindus and Muslims.His disciples were both Hindus and Muslims. Saints like Guru Nanak and Raidas also laid great emphasis on Hindu Muslim unity.The disciples of Chaitanya and Namdev included both Hindus and Muslims.Many influential poets of the Guru Nanak Bhakti period worked to strengthen the feeling of Hindu-Muslim unity through their poems.
- Use of popular language:
Another important feature of the Bhakti movement was that the people’s language was used in this movement.This led to a very influential and widely disseminated movement’s principles.Saints like Kabir and Namdev composed poetry in Hindi, Guru Nanak in Punjabi, Meera in Rajasthani.Because of this, the principles of the Bhakti movement became easily accessible to the people.Reading the messages in their own language increased people’s curiosity even more and people started taking interest in it.As a result the Bhakti movement spread widely.
- Opposition to retirement:
The saints of the Bhakti movement were strongly against various kinds of rituals and ostentation, but at the same time they were also not in favor of taking sannyasa.He believes that a person who has true faith in God does not need to take sannyasa. He can attain God even while living at home.Therefore, according to him, it was not necessary to take up renunciation to attain God.
The Bhakti movement was a spiritual path to God. Bhakti movement had a huge contribution in the development of modern India.
Question 13. Examine the central governance system of Delhi Sultanate. Mention its main characteristics.
During the Sultanate period, the Sultan was the head of the central government.The entire power of administration was concentrated in his hands.He was the constitutional and practical head of the state.There was a council of ministers and high officials at the central level to assist the Sultan.Four ministers were important in the Council of Ministers. Who looked after the following departments.
Justice system of the Sultanate Period:
Wazir was the head of the council of ministers.He had more powers than other ministers.He also kept an eye on the work of other ministers.After the Sultan, the Wazir was considered the highest official of the central administration.Its main functions were to make rules for revenue management, fix tax rates, control state expenditure and look after military expenditure.
There were two categories of Wazirs in the Delhi Sultanate:
- Wazir-e-Tawfid: He had unlimited powers. It was capable of taking decisions on important matters without the orders of the Sultan.
- Wazir-e-Tanfid: Its powers were limited. It enforced government rules and exercised control over employees and the general public.
Main characteristics of central government system:
1- Diwan-e-Vizarat (Revenue Department)
The head of Diwan-e-Wizarat was the Wazir or the Prime Minister.The Tughlaq period is called the “Golden Age” of “Muslim Indian Governorship”. Whereas the period of Balban was his low period.
The Diwan-e-Arz department was established by Balban.He appointed Ahmed Ayyaz as the first chairman of this department.The head of this department was called “Ariz-e-Mumalik”.The main work of Ariz-e-Mumalik was to recruit soldiers, maintain the condition of soldiers and horses and do military inspection.Ariz-e-Mumalik used to inspect the soldiers of the Iqtadars. It also had to arrange food and transportation for the soldiers.
This was the royal secretariat.Whose chief was called “Dabir-e-Khas”.The main work of this department was to prepare the manuscripts of royal proclamations and letters. Government records were also kept in this department.
There is disagreement among scholars regarding the functions of this department.According to some historians, this department used to prepare drafts of letters to be sent to neighboring states and maintained contact with ambassadors going to foreign countries and coming to the country.According to some scholars, this department was related to religion. An officer named ‘Sadra’ was the head of this department.
Question 14. Describe the main features/characteristics of the Sufi movement that emerged in India.
The word ‘Sufi’ is used to express the mystical religious ideas of Islam.It had taken the form of a full-fledged movement by the 11th century.Sufi saints emphasized on establishing direct contact with God by following the difficult path.
Main features of the Sufi movement that started in India:
- Sufis were organized into different silsilas (orders).
- Most of these silsilas were started by famous Sufi saints or Pirs. These operated in his name and the disciples used to follow him.
- Sufis believed that to attain God, a spiritual guru or pir is required.
- Pir lived in Khanqah with his disciples.
- Khanqah (Dharamshala) used to be the center of Sufi activities.
- Khanqah emerged as a major center of knowledge, which was completely different from Madrasas.
- Many Sufi saints enjoyed musical religious gatherings i.e. ‘Sam’ in their Khanqahs. During this period, a new genre of music, Qawwali, developed.
- Many Sufi saints enjoyed musical religious gatherings i.e. ‘Sam’ in their Khanqahs. During this period, a new genre of music, Qawwali, developed.
- All Sufi saints believed in miracles. Almost all the Pirs were associated with miracles performed by them.
- Every Sufi order had different views regarding monarchy and governance.
This proves that Sufis are different from other cultures. Therefore, they mainly believe in God and do not believe in worshiping idols to pray to God.
Lesson – 15
Question 15. Who was Ahilyabai? What were his Main Achievements?
Ahilyabai: Queen Ahilyabai was the wife of Khanderao, son of the famous Subedar Malharrao Holkar.Ahilyabai was not the queen of any big state.His scope of work was relatively limited.Still, what she did is surprising.Maharani Ahilyabai Holkar was the Maratha Holkar queen of the Malwa Kingdom of India.He was born on 31 May 1725 in Chaundi village of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra.His father Mankoji Rao Shinde was the Patil of his village.At that time women did not go to school, but Ahilyabai’s father taught her how to read and write.
1. Contribution in making Indore a beautiful city
History of Ahilyabai Holkar: During her amazing reign of about 30 years, Ahilyabai Holkar, the queen mother of the Maratha province, played an important role in making Indore, a small village, a prosperous and developed city.Along with improving the condition of roads, making arrangements for food for the poor and the hungry, he also laid a lot of emphasis on education.It is because of Ahilyabai that today Indore is recognized among the prosperous and developed cities of India.
2. Ahilyabai did many things for widowed women and society
She dedicated himself completely to social service.Ahilyabai always thought about the welfare of her subjects and the poor, along with this she was always ready to help the poor and the needy whenever possible.He also did a lot of work on the status of widowed women in the society and also made changes in the laws made at that time for them.In fact, before Ahilyabai took over the rule of the Maratha province, there was a law that if a woman became widow and did not have a son, her entire property was deposited in the government treasury or treasury, but Ahilyabai changed this law. By changing this, the widow woman was entitled to take her husband’s property.
3. Construction of temples in famous places of pilgrimage and places across India
Outside the boundaries of her kingdom, Ahilyabai built temples in famous places of pilgrimage and places across India, built ghats, built wells and stepwells, got roads built and improved, opened Annasatra (other areas) for the hungry, provided seats for the thirsty, Scholars were appointed in temples to meditate and preach on the scriptures.And, giving up the false attachment of self-respect, she always tried to do justice – till her death.She was in the same tradition in which her contemporary was Judge Ramshastri of Poona and she was followed by Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi.
Ahilyabai took a major part in the turmoil of her time.Apart from this, Queen Ahilyabai built temples and opened religious schools at famous pilgrimage places like Kashi, Gaya, Somnath, Ayodhya, Mathura, Haridwar, Dwarka, Badrinarayan, Rameshwar, Jagannath Puri etc.
Question 16. Why is the 1757Battle of Plassey is important?And explain the reasons why this war happened.
Battle of Plassey After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707 AD, Subedar Alivardi Khan of Bengal declared himself an independent ruler in 1740.Ali Vardi Khan was a very capable and powerful ruler.This was the reason that during his period none of the various European castes living in Bengal could dare to create trouble.After the death of Ali Vardi Khan in 1756, his daughter’s son Siraj-ud-Daula became his successor.But due to many circumstances the relations between him and the British became bitter.Due to which a fierce war started between them.
Importance of Battle of Plassey: Significance of the Battle of Plassey; The Battle of Plassey has a special political significance.This war affected not only the fate of the British but also of entire India.The Battle of Plassey was no more than a small conflict, but its results were more important than the results of the great wars of the world.
Economic benefits to the Company: The economic condition of the East India Company improved significantly in the Battle of Plassey.Mir Jafar, the new Nawab of Bengal, gifted a huge sum of money to the Company.With the acquisition of zamindari of 24 villages, the company’s income increased by approximately Rs 1.5 lakh annually and along with this, the company also got the facility to do tax-free business in Bengal.
Establishment of British control over Bengal: After the Battle of Plassey, the British became the de facto rulers of Bengal. The new Nawab was just a puppet in the hands of the British.
Increase in the prestige of the Company: The Battle of Plassey greatly increased the prestige of the Company.The British East India Company grew from a simple trading company to an influential force that could make and destroy rulers.
Reasons for the Battle of Plassey:
Giving shelter to the Nawab’s Enemies:Probably the British believed that Siraj-ud-Daula would not be able to become Nawab after the death of Ali Vardi.He supported Begum and her Diwan Rajballabh, an influential party in the court.He sent Krishna Das, son of Siraj-ud-Daula’s enemy Rajballabh, along with his family and treasure to Kolkata and when Siraj-ud-Daula asked the British to return Krishna Das, the British refused.This made the Nawab believe that the British were helping his opponents.
Fortification of Kolkata by the British: The main reason for the quarrel was the fortification of Kolkata by the British.He had obtained permission from the Nawab for this work.This enraged the Nawab and he clearly asked the British to dismantle the fortifications of Kolkata but the British paid no attention to it.Then he wanted to immediately destroy their power in Bengal.
Misuse of trade facilities: The British had obtained the right to trade without paying taxes in the Mughal state from the Mughal emperor Farrukhsiyar, but the employees of the East India Company had started misusing this right.Not only the company but also the employees and their relatives started using this right, while on the other hand the British had also allowed Indian businessmen to use the Dastak (free pass).This reduced the Nawab’s income significantly, due to which the Nawab was very dissatisfied, but the British were not ready to give up their special rights.
Siraj-ud-Daula’s control over Calcutta:The British had by now understood that no one would be able to elect Siraj-ud-Daula for the post of Nawab, hence Governor Drake wrote a letter to the Nawab, the language of which was polite but did not give any assurance regarding dismantling the fortification of Calcutta, hence the Nawab wrote a letter to the Nawab. Decided to immediately attack the British.
The British regained control of Kolkata and the Treaty of Alinagar: After the control of Kolkata, Nawab Siraj-ud-Daula became calm, he was inexperienced and of a luxurious nature.He had no other solution to deal with the British threat.There was a lack of political stability in Bengal at this time.The worms of corruption, conspiracy and factionalism were hollowing out the body of the state.The British included Manish Chand, the in-charge of Kolkata, Amichand, a businessman of the city, and Vasset, the leading moneylender of the court, in their conspiracy and started preparing for war.
The Battle of Plassey has historical importance in Indian history.Due to this war the British were successful in establishing their rule in India.The success of Plassey and the conquest of Bengal made subsequent efforts by the British to conquer North India successful.Plassey significantly increased the power and resources of the British.If Plassey’s decision had been against the British, then the establishment of their power in North India would have become doubtful.
Question 17. How did the Marathas regain their lost importance in the 18th century?
The single significant power that emerged in the long final period of the Mughal dynasty was Maratha power. The most prominent clan among Maratha warriors was the Bhonsale. Shivaji Bhonsle emerged as a major force in southern politics. However, Shivaji could not succeed his son and disciple (Sambha ji and his younger brother Rajaram respectively). At one time there was a strange feeling that the demonic power was declining. In the 18th century, there were some changes in Christian religious places and there was an improvement in Maratha power.
The Marathas regained their lost importance in the 18th century in this way:
Sahu’s rule: Sahu succeeded Rajaram in 1708. Sahu ruled for four decades till 1749 AD. This period is known for the dominance of Brahmin ministers of the Chitpavan gotra, who gradually came to dominate the politics of Maharashtra. Bhonsle became powerless. Balaji Vishwanath, assuming the title of Peshwa, appears as the first prominent figure who helped Sahu in his rise to power. Vishwanath and his successor Bajirao I (Peshwa between 1720–1740) were able to officially administer the Maratha state better than their predecessors, the Bhoslas. He systematized the practice of collecting fees from Mughal territories and was named Sardeshmukhi and Chauth.
Expansion of the Maratha Empire: By the end of Sahu’s rule, some powerful Maratha areas were under his complete control. During this period, the areas under their control saw development in the sophisticated areas of trade, banking and finance. Pune based banking houses also had many branches in Gujarat, Ganga valley and the south. Attention was given to coastal works. Balaji Vishwanath took some care in refining the Angriya clan, which controlled shipping at Colaba and other western coasts. These ships became a threat not only to the newly established British rule in Bombay but also to the Portuguese in Goa, Daman and Besan.
Bhonsale of Nagpur: Unlike the Bhonsale of Kolhapur and the descendants of Vyamkoji of Thanjavur, who claimed equal status to the Satara king, the lineage of Nagpur was clearly subordinate to the Satara rulers. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Raghuji Bhosle (1727-55 AD), who is considered responsible for the expansion of the Maratha Empire in Bengal and Bihar.
Gaekwads of Baroda: The Gaekwads made their presence felt in 1720. Initially he was subordinate not only to the powerful Bhonsle family but also to the influential family. It was Sahu’s death, which further increased the power of the Peshwas and the condition of the Gaekwads became even better. In the first half of 1750 his rights over a large part of the revenue of Gujarat were recognized by the Peshwa. The expulsion of the Mughal ruler from Gujarat region from Ahmedabad in 1752 put his stamp on this system. The Gaekwads established their capital at Baroda, which led to the reunification of the system of trade and production in that region.
Holkar of Indore: Talking about Holkars, their position and Sama Dvi were noteworthy. In the beginning he had very little political power. However, by 1730, their chief Malhar Rao Holkar had strengthened his position considerably. A large part of the Chauth collection was provided to them from Malwa, East Gujarat and Khandesh. Malhar Rao established his rule in Indore, where his successors established control over the main trade routes and the major trading center of Burhanpur.
Scindia of Gwalior: The Scindia dynasty made its mark in the politics of North India in the decade after the Third Battle of Panipat (1761). Like Holkar, Scindia was also mainly concentrated in Central India. This dynasty was first organized in Ujjain and after the latter half of the 18th century in Gwalior during the long rule of Mahadji Scindia (1761-1794). Mahadji proved to be an efficient and innovative military administrator. He employed many European soldiers in his service. After 1770 his power suddenly increased.
In the 18th century, the Marathas regained their lost importance, especially during the reign of Peshwa Balaji Bajirao (Nana Saheb). Peshwa sought treaties with various kings, protectorates and feudal lords to re-consolidate the Maratha Empire and Contributed to the innovation of the Maratha Empire. Apart from this, Maratha feudal rulers like Bhonsale and Gaekwad also strengthened their territories and increased the strength of the Maratha Empire. As a result, the Maratha Empire played an important role in Indian history and rebuilt its power in various provinces.
Lesson – 16
Question 18. Explain the Regulating Act of 1773 in India.
The Regulating Act (1773) was brought by the British Parliament to control the conditions arising out of the misadministration of Bengal due to the actions of the East India Company and to take away political power from the hands of the Company.The British Parliament felt the need to control the activities of the East India Company in India, due to which the Regulating Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1773 AD.This was the first step taken directly by the British Parliament in relation to India.
Features of Regulating Act (1773):-
- By this, the administrative and political functions of the Company were recognized for the first time and by this the foundation of central administration in India was laid.
- By the Regulating Act 1773, the Governor of Bengal came to be known as the Governor General of Bengal and a four-member Executive Council was formed to assist him. Lord Warren Hastings became the first Governor General of Bengal.
- Through this Act, the Governors of Madras and Bombay were made subordinate to the Governor General of Bengal. Before this, the Governors of Bengal, Madras and Bombay were not answerable to each other, and they were free to take their own decisions directly.
- Now instead of 500 pound shareholders, 1000 pound shareholders were given the right to elect the Court of Directors (governing body of 24 members).
- The directors of the Company (governing body of 24 members) were told that from now on they would keep the British Government informed about all the work done in relation to revenue, civil and military administration.
- The tenure of the directors of the company was reduced to 4 years and the system of electing new members in place of one fourth of them every year was adopted.
- An administrative board was formed in Bengal. In which the Governor General and 4 councilors were appointed.
Question 19. How did Lord Wellesley expand British power? Explain the merits and demerits of subsidiary alliance.
The british rule in India started after the Battle of Plassey, thus becoming the first Governor General of India, Warren Hastings, whose tenure was from 1773 to 1785. Two Governor Generals worked to make the British Raj stronger in India.
Expansion of British Power:
In 1798, Lord Wellesley came to India as Governor General, who first worked to strengthen the English Empire in India. Lord Wellesley used to criticize the Governor General before him.
- According to Lord Wellesley, if the earlier Governor General had worked, today the whole of India would have been occupied by the British. He took several steps to strengthen the English state in India. Lord Wellesley’s tenure was from 1798-1805. Wellesley takes an interest in India’s activities.
- He used to put the company first every time in every work of India. Lord Wellesley introduced three types of policy, the most essential of which is the subsidiary treaty. Lord Wellesley had adopted other methods for the expansion of the empire.
Subsidiary Treaty:Made up of a combination of two words, it means a treaty to be assisted among themselves. The British were pretending to help the kings of India with this treaty, the purpose of the British behind this was to weaken the power of the kings of India. The real form of this treaty was that the princely states of India had to depend on the British in any way.After accepting India from this treaty, the British started interfering in India’s foreign and internal system. In this way, all the states of India became dependent on the British.
Properties of subsidiary pact:
The subsidiary treaty was a well thought out diplomatic move by Lord Wellesley. All parties to this subsidiary treaty were beneficial to the British such as:-
- All the kings who believed in the subsidiary treaty were weak, the reason for this was that they did not have any army, so they could not even think of fighting against the British.
- The company has all the rights regarding the foreign policy of the state which accepts the subsidiary treaty. But in reality, the whole state was occupied by the company.
- The state that accepted the subsidiary treaty weakened the European company by prohibiting the aid or employment of any European or British enemies.
- The company was able to keep a large army without any much expenditure. The company had complete control over the army.
- The Company used to take more money than the army used to spend and thus the Indian kings became weak.
Defects of subsidiary treaty:
- After adopting the treaty, they became dependent on the British and lost their independence. They became powerless, helpless and anxious.
- After the acceptance of the subsidiary treaty, the company became controlled in all the internal affairs of the state. The rulers of India became completely dependent on the company.
- This treaty worsened the economic condition of the states. As the influence of the British increased, so did the demand for money. Even after giving a considerable area to the states, the company’s expenses were not being met.
- After all the states accepted this treaty, the British did not have much difficulty in removing the Indian kings.
- The administration of the states of India deteriorated. If the public raised any voice, it was suppressed by force.
- With this treaty, the Indian states ended their own pride and national pride. In this way, Indian soldiers became financially and mentally weak.
- When the treaty came into force, the British realized the weakness of Indians and india’s national character weakened in front of the world outside India.
Thus the auxiliary treaty was the infallible weapon of Lord Wellesley. Any princely state/state after falling into the trap called subsidiary treaty. There was almost no possibility of the ruler coming out. In this way, Lord Wellesley put pressure on the native kings and made the princely states of India dependent on the British through a subsidiary treaty.
Question 20. What methods did the British adopt to establish their rule in India?
Answer –The British adopted several methods to establish their rule in India:
- Trade and Commerce: The British East India Company favoured the profits that came through trade in India. They increased the demand for Indian textiles, spices, and other textiles and they began to supply textiles, golden, and other textiles from Britain.
- Strategic rule: The British made their troops in different territories of India and they made agreements with the kings and courts of different kingdoms. Through this strategic rule, they began to increase their authority.
- Partition and remission of states: The British gave different rule to different states by dividing the Indian Empire, which they succeeded in weakening Indian prosperity.
- Legal and administrative changes: The British government made legal and administrative changes in India and implemented its legal and education system in India, allowing them to establish their rule in the name of good governance.
- Winning support: The British government used various methods to win the support of Indian social, religious and political streams, such as following various procrastinating and critical streams.
Through these methods, the British government established its rule in India and inthe year 1858 acquired full authorized rights of jurisdiction and governance from the Mughal Emperor, making India a part of his British Empire.
Lesson – 17
Question 21. In which area was the Ryotwari system first started?
Answer –The Ryotwadi system was first implemented in the Baramahal district of the Madras Presidency in 1792. The system was implemented by Colonel Reed. In 1820, Thomas Munro, the then Governor of Madras, implemented it throughout Madras. The Ryotwadi system was a land revenue system introduced during the British Raj. This arrangement was in Madras, Madras. It was implemented in Bombay and some parts of Assam. About 51 per cent of the land came under the Ryotwadi system. It provided land ownership rights to raiyats or farmers.
Question 22. What were the three phases of British colonialism in India?
Answer –The three phases of British colonialism in India are as follows:
- First Step:
- The first phase of colonialism that begins after the Battle of Plassey. In this, the East India Company completely captured the Indian trade.
- In the first phase of colonialism, the company used to export finished Indian goods at low prices to Britain and other countries of Europe and fetch a good price.
- In the first phase of colonialism, the British company’s entire focus was on economic plunder.Therefore, at this stage, he had to fight many wars with Portuguese, Dutch and French companies for business monopoly.
- Second Phase:
- The second phase of colonialism is considered to be industrial capitalism from 1813 to 1858. This was followed by a new form of exploitation of India by industrial capitalism. At this stage, policies were made keeping in mind the Industrial Revolution in England, large-scale industries were established in England.
- It is worth noting that between 1765 and 1785 there were many scientific inventions, such as harvesting machines, steam engines, power looms, water frames, etc. With the establishment of industries, on the one hand, the need for raw materials and food grains was felt, on the other hand, there was a need for a large market for the sale of factory-made products, as a result, the British implemented new policies in India to fulfill these objectives.
- Britain adopted a free trade policy towards India by passing the Charter Act of 1813. Except for tea and trade with China, the company’s trading monopoly from Indian territory was ended and the door to India was opened to every British trader. Now India has become an exporter of raw materials and an importer of finished goods.
- An important achievement of this phase was the development of railways, although the development of railways was not done in terms of India’s progress but due to the social and economic needs of the British. This is because there was a need for the development of means of transport in the country for the export of raw materials from India and the import of goods produced in British factories and its internal sales.The second reason for its development was to send the army to remote areas for the protection of the British Empire so that any rebellion against the British Empire could be suppressed without any delay.
- Third Step:
- The third phase of colonialism is considered to be financial capitalism from 1858 to 1947. This phase of colonialism was the logical culmination of the first two stages, under which the process of exploitation of those stages continued but changed its form.
- The revolt of 1857, changes in the international scenario, competition from increasing industrialization in other European countries outside England, etc. gave rise to a new phase of colonialism in India, which is called financial capitalism.
- The ill-effects of financial capitalism made the Indian economy even hollower than ever before. During this time, Indians had to pay interest on public debt, which weakened the process of investment in capital formation.
Lesson – 18
Question 23. Which was the first newspaper of India and when was it published?
Answer –India’s first newspaper was ‘Bengal Gazette’. It was published in Kolkata on January 29, 1780. It was started by Irishman James Augustus Hickey. It was India’s first printed news magazine. It was published in English and was a weekly paper.
Question 24. What do you understand by Hunter Commission? Discuss what it was related to.
The Hunter Commission was established in 1882 under the leadership of W. W. Hunter following Wood’s Declaration to review progress in education. It mainly focused on primary and secondary education. The Hunter Commission made a lot of recommendations. It laid special emphasis on primary education,the control of which was to be transferred to the district and municipal boards.
The Hunter Commission was concerned with several key aspects:
- Educational Reforms: The primary objective of the Hunter Commission was to assess the state of education in India and recommend reforms to improve it. The Commission studied various aspects of the educational system including syllabus, textbooks, examination system, teacher training and infrastructure.
- Native vs English Education: One of the major debates of that time was whether education in India should be primarily in English or local languages. The Commission addressed this issue and recommended a balanced approach with an emphasis on both English and local language education to meet the diverse linguistic and cultural needs of the population.
- Financial aspects: The Commission looked into the financial aspects of education, including funding of educational institutions and allocation of resources. It recommended increasing government support for education.
- Recommendations for girls’ education: The Hunter Commission recognized the importance of girls’ education and made recommendations to promote female education in India.
The recommendations of the Hunter Commission had a significant impact on the development of the education system in India during the colonial period. Although this led to some positive changes and reforms, it was also criticised for its British-centric approach and not fully addressing the needs and aspirations of the Indian population.
Question 25. Underline the importance of Wood’s manifesto in guiding policy in India.
The most important part of the development of education, especially English education, in India in the 19th century was the guidelines prepared by Secretary of State Charles Wood. It was issued in 1854 and was known as the Wood Declaration. This detailed plan influenced the education system in the latter half of the 19th century. This completely established European education on the Indian map.
Features of Wood’s manifesto:
- It considered the purpose of education in India to be the spread of European knowledge.
- The medium of higher education will remain English and local languages will be the medium through which European knowledge can reach the common people.
- It proposed some categories in schools. That is, vernacular primary schools at the village level, followed by Anglo vernacular high schools at the secondary level and affiliated colleges at the district level.
- This manifesto recommended for the first time government grants to encourage private efforts in the education sector.
- It also proposed the establishment of a Department of Public Instruction headed by a Director in all the five territories under British rule. The objective of this department was to review the progress of education in a particular area. The Department of Public Instruction was established in 1855 and replaced the Committee of Public Instruction and Council of Education.
- It also proposed to establish universities in Calcutta, Mumbai and Madras on the lines of London University which would conduct examinations and confer degrees. In 1857, universities were established in Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
- Apart from formal education, this manifesto also stressed the importance of vocational education and advocated the establishment of technical schools and colleges.
- It also supported education for women. As a result, many modern girls’ schools were opened which also received assistance from the government.
Wood’s manifesto is a unique milestone in the journey of development of modern Indian education. From here the nature of real education is expressed. Although Wood’s recommendations laid the foundation of revolutionary changes in education, they also contained some shortcomings. Here a comparative picture of the merits and demerits of this manifesto is being presented.
Lesson – 21
Question 26. When was the Indian National Congress formed? Which British officer played an important role in its formation?
Answer – The Indian National Congress was formed in 1885 by a group of 72 politically aware educated Indians. , a retired officer of the British Indian Civil Service. Mr. A O. Hume played a very important role in its formation.
Question 27. Mention any two reasons for changing the capital by the British in 1911.
Answer – British Emperor George V had announced to make Delhi the capital of India on December 12, 1911. The announcement was made at the Delhi Darbar held on the outskirts of Delhi.
The main reasons for shifting the capital from Calcutta to Delhi were:
- Delhi was near the geographical center of the country.
- Delhi was also the economic and political center of many empires earlier.
- The growing nationalist movement in Calcutta was also the reason for this change.
Question 28. What is the Kamagata Maru incident?
Answer – The Kamagatamaru incident occurred in 1914. In this incident, 376 Indians boarded a Japanese ship to immigrate to Canada. Of these, only 24 people were admitted to Canada and the rest were returned to India.
This ship was hired by Gurdit Singh, leader of the Gadar Party, who was involved in the freedom movement. On March 4, 1914, the ship left for Vancouver, Canada with 375 people on board. The ship reached Canada on 23 May. The British landed only 24 people and forcibly sent back the rest.
In the incident, authorities also banned food and water from being delivered to the ship. 376 people had to live on the ship without food and water for two months.
There were 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, 12 Hindus and the rest British in this ship. When this ship reached Bajabaj Ghat in Kolkata on 27 September 1914, the British opened fire. In this, 19 people died on the spot. This incident further intensified the wave of independence.
Lesson – 28
Question 29. Discuss the progress of art and literature in the 20th century.
The twentieth century has seen significant advances in art forms such as painting, music and literature and some of the newest artistic mediums such as cinema and recorded music. Some of the main art movements that led to new creative work across nations during this period were modernism, social realism, and postmodernism.
Advancement of art and literature in the 20th century:
- Modernism,which emerged in the late 19th century and continued into the early 20th century, represented a radical departure from traditional artistic and literary forms. Traditional methods of artistic expression were also refined and bold experiments were attempted again and again.These often seemed very subtle and incomprehensible to an ordinary viewer. Some of the great modernists who developed their own styles in this trend include Spanish painter Pablo Picasso who was famous for presenting multi-dimensional images of figures in painting. Cubism Irish writer James Joyce presented the technique of The Stream of Consciousness in his book titled Ulysses. Was done.
- Through the style of social realism,another class of artists artistically expressed a more progressive and optimistic attitude towards social changes in their art works. Novelists like Bartold Brecht in Germany and George BernardShaw in Britain and Maxim Gorky in Russia and Poets like Alexander Blok can be counted among the directors of this trend. These poets and writers were inspired by the ideal of egalitarian transformation of the society.
- The Bolshevik Revolution and the formation of the Soviet Union inspired many people and social realism as an artistic trend brought them to life in many non-communist countries, which were simultaneously caught in the violent web of colonialism, feudalism and capitalist exploitation. Were, to a considerable extent, inspired to do creative work.
- In India, in the 1940s, with the clear support of the leftists, enlightened poets like Majaj and Josh and other learned writers like Premchand gave a deeply realistic portrayal of the social concerns of contemporary rural life. Similarly, in China, enlightened and great realist writers like Lu Hsun, whose writing tendencies were inspired by socialism, wrote their great works.
In fact, one of the most important developments in recent years has been the richness of art and literature in Asian, African and Latin American countries during the 19th and 20th centuries. On the one hand, the artists of these countries gave expression to national aspirations and at the same time faced the problems of feudal and capitalist exploitation emerging in their societies.
Question 30. Mention the role of education and students in the cultural change that occurred during the twentieth century.
Education and students played an important role in cultural changes during the twentieth century. University students were active in social and cultural protests. This period was marked by many transformative events and movements that influenced social norms, values, and cultural expressions.
Role of education and students:
1960s counterculture and student protests: A counterculture movement emerged in the 1960s, and students played an important role in it. They opposed the Vietnam War, advocated civil rights and women’s rights, and embraced social and cultural change by challenging traditional norms of dress, music, and lifestyle. The student-led protests of that era often led to broader cultural shifts.
Student Activism in 1968: In 1968, university students around the world were at the forefront of various social and cultural protests. They opposed exploitative state policies and challenged academic elites, demanding more inclusive and accessible education. These protests had a profound impact on cultural changes during the 20th century. Students were not only addressing domestic issues but also connecting internationally.They were motivated by a sense of global solidarity and a common purpose, particularly opposing American intervention in Vietnam. This internationalism was an important cultural shift because it encouraged the exchange of ideas and values on a global scale.
Education and students were integral parts of cultural changes during the 20th century. They influenced major movements and changes in society. And as centers of knowledge and activism, educational institutions and students played an important role in shaping the cultural landscape of the time.
Lesson – 29
Question 31. What is Rigveda? In what context was the word “king” used in it?
Answer – Rigveda: Rigveda was probably written between 1800-1000 BC. It was written between. It is a collection of stotras, which contain stotras related to various deities, especially Agni, Indra and Soma. Generally the sources were composed by priests. They were often chanted during sacrifices and used to invoke the gods for rituals.
In Rig Veda the word king has been used as an adjective of many gods. Sometimes it has also been used to refer to powerful people. These men did not control a huge army or a huge administrative system. The main source of their power probably came from their leadership in war.
Question 32. Why was it important to collect taxes? Mention it.
Answer –Tax collection became important because the rulers of Mahajanapadas were building huge forts and maintaining large armies, hence they needed regular supply of money, hence tax collection became very important.
The various methods of collecting taxes were as follows:
- Tax on crops was most important. This was because most of the people were farmers. They often depended on kings to protect their land and crops. Generally 1/6th of the land produce was determined as tax. This tax was known as ‘Bhag’.
- Crafts were also taxed. This tax was in the form of labour. For example, a weaver or blacksmith had to work for the government for one day in every month. Shepherds were also expected to pay taxes.
- Taxes were also imposed on goods bought and sold through trade.
The king needed more money to pay the salaries of many officials to collect taxes. Some taxes were collected in the form of goods, such as grains, cattle or goods manufactured by craftsmen. Sometimes these taxes were also collected in cash. And in fact some of the early coins were from this period.
Lesson – 30
Question 33. Who was Megasthenes?
Answer – Megasthenes (304 BC – 299 BC) was a Greek ambassador who came to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. He stayed in Chandragupta’s court for many years. Whatever he saw in India, he has described it in detail in a book named “Indica”.
Question 34. How did the Gupta period state expand? And describe the contribution made by Aryabhata in the field of science during this period.
The largest empire in the fourth century AD was the Gupta Empire, which marked the beginning of the Golden Age of Indian history. This empire lasted for more than two centuries. It included a large part of the Indian subcontinent. The Gupta period has also been called the imperial age, but the administrative centralization of the imperial system is less visible in it as compared to the Maurya period.
Expansion of the Gupta Empire:
- Chandragupta I: The Gupta Empire was founded by Chandragupta I, who initially ruled a small kingdom in the Magadha region. He expanded his territory by forming matrimonial alliances with the powerful Licchavi clan and Licchavi, which helped him gain control over the eastern Ganga plains.
- Samudragupta: Chandragupta killed his son Samudragupta around 330 BC. Samudragupta is considered one of the greatest Gupta emperors. He greatly expanded the empire through military conquests. He carried out a series of military operations in different directions and expanded the Gupta rule over most parts of northern and central India.
- Chandragupta II: Samudragupta was succeeded by his son Chandragupta II, who is also known as Chandragupta Vikramaditya. The Gupta Empire reached its peak during his reign. His reign saw both military conquest and diplomacy as tools of expansion. He is also known for patronizing the arts and education, which contributed to the cultural and intellectual development of the empire.
Contributions made by Aryabhata in the field of science during this period:
- Aryabhata was a fifth century mathematician, astronomer, astrologer and expert in physics.
- He was a pioneer in the field of mathematics. At the age of 23 he wrote Aryabhattiyam
- This scholarly work has 4 divisions. In the first section he described the method of representing large decimal numbers in characters. In the second department, difficult questions from modern mathematics subjects like number theory, geometry, trigonometry and algebra are given. The remaining two departments are related to astronomy.
- Aryabhata said that zero is not just a number but a symbol, a concept. Only with the invention of zero, Aryabhata was able to accurately measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon. The discovery of zero also opened the door to a new direction of negative numbers.
The Gupta Empire expanded its dominance through a combination of military conquests and strategic alliances, and reached its peak under Chandragupta II. And Aryabhata’s pioneering work not only enriched the scientific and intellectual landscape of the Gupta era, but also had a lasting impact on the development of mathematics and astronomy in India and beyond.
Lesson – 31
Question 35. What difficulties did Babar face after the battle of Panipat? Explain.
Answer – Introduction
Babur defeated the very large ruling army of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of Delhi in 1526 and effectively ended the Lodi dynasty in India, though it took time for Babur to consolidate control over the country. After the battle of Panipat, he faced many problems in terms of the adverse climate of India, the isolated culture of the new land and the challenges of Rana Sanga in the west and the Afghans from the east.
After the battle of Panipat, Babur faced the following difficulties:
Climate: Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, was from Central Asia. He liked the colder climate of Central Asia than the warmer and more humid climate of India. Unfamiliar tropical climates, monsoons and diseases presented significant challenges for his army.
Opposition to regional powers: Various regional powers in India, including Rajput empires, Afghan chieftains and local rulers, opposed attempts to expand Babur’s empire. These powers had their own interests and were not willing to willingly accept Babur’s rule. He had to be involved in several military campaigns to suppress these resistance movements.
Language and cultural differences: There were considerable language and cultural differences between the Central Asian Mughals and the Indian population. This cultural difference created a sense of alienation and Babur had to overcome these differences, which was a source of tension.
Resource constraints: Babur faced resource constraints in terms of manpower, finance and military equipment. He had to manage and maintain his army, as well as rule the newly acquired territories with limited resources.
Rebellion: The areas he occupied often saw local rebellions and rebellions. He had to suppress these movements in order to maintain control over the newly acquired territories.
Despite these difficulties, Babur’s determination, military prowess and ability to adapt to the Indian context allowed him to overcome many of these challenges. Over time, he made his strong hold in India and laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire, which went on to become one of the most influential and enduring empires in Indian history.
Question 36. Evaluate the rule of the Mughals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
Answer – Introduction
Babur, who came from Central Asia in 1526, established the Mughal dynasty in India. Babur inherited from both Timur and Genghis Khan. Its victories in Delhi and the Gangetic Valley preceded the last step of military power in South Asia.
Rule of Mughals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries:
- In 1526, Babur conquered the Sultans from Punjab to Bengal but the opponents remained.
- Thirteen years later an Afghan soldier who had fought a war for the Lodhis and Babur changed his name to Sher Shah to demonstrate his Persian training in Jaunpur, which proclaimed a new dynasty in Bengal and Bihar.
- Soon after the death of Sher Shah, Humayun conquered Delhi in 1555. He died there due to an accident. After this, his thirteen-year-old son Akbar sat on the throne under the supervision of his mentor Bairam Khan.
- Akbar was crowned in 1556 when Bairam Khan conquered the fortified cities of Lahore, Delhi, Agra and Jaunpur. Bairam Khan also conquered Malwa and Rajasthan before being removed from the post of patron and killed. Akbar ruled for fifty years (1556-1605). He won until the end. His armies outperformed all the earlier armies in size, wealth, leadership, technology and success.
- Akbar’s fame reached his son Jahangir (1605-1627), grandson Shah Jahan (1627-1658) and great-grandson Aurangzeb (1658-1707), after whose death the imperial rule ended. However, this dynasty persisted until 1858, when it was deposed by the
- The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in the subcontinent brought the establishment and expansion of European and non-European trading organizations. Indian territories came closer to each other through dense land routes and coastal trade systems, mainly for the procurement of goods demanded abroad.
At its peak, the Mughal Empire had authority over resources unprecedented in Indian history. And he spanned almost the entire subcontinent. In the golden period of its astonishing wealth and splendor between 1556 and 1707, the Mughal Empire was a sufficiently capable and focused organization.
Lesson – 32
Question 37. Discuss the changes in Indian society under the colonial state.
During the colonial period, there were many changes in the socio-economic and political spheres of Indian society. The main difference between the initial invaders and the British Empire inventory was that none of the previous invaders made structural changes to the Indian economy. The establishment of the British Empire in India changed the economic, social and political landscape of India.
Changes in Indian society under the colonial state:
- The main changes that the British made in Indian society were all done on the upper class. He replaced useless elite leaders with a bureaucratic military establishment by practical techniques that was very efficient in maintaining law and order. Higher government efficiency drastically reduced the fiscal burden and made one of the largest parts of the national product available to landlords, capitalists and new professionals.
- Some of the income of this upper class was sent to Britain, but most was spent in India. But the mode of consumption changed, because the new upper class no longer owned harems and palaces, nor wore fine muslins and furnished swords.
- This led to some painful consequences in the field of traditional handicrafts. The government itself invested in railways and irrigation, which led to an increase in production. The new elite established a new lifestyle with the use of English language and English schools. New urban and town facilities with separate suburbs and habitations were created for them.
- The new professional elite of lawyers, doctors, teachers, journalists, and businessmen imitated his habits. Under this group, old caste barriers were loosened and social mobility increased. As far as the general population is concerned, there has not been much change for it during the colonial rule. The educational efforts of the British were very limited. There were no major changes in rural society, caste system, status of untouchables, joint family system or production techniques of agriculture.
Due to the influence of colonialism, India came to know modern ideas. It was also a contradictory situation. During this period, India came to know Western liberalism and independence as modernity, on the other hand, contrary to these Western ideas, India lacked freedom and liberalism under British colonial rule.
(a) Mark the following with their names on the given outline map of India.
- The place where the Jallianwala Bagh incident took place
- Famous place of Madhubani painting
(b) Show the following on the given map of Europe.